4406 entries. 94 themes. Last updated December 26, 2016.

Timeline Outline ViewEra: 1850 - 1875   |   Theme: All Themes

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1850 – November 13, 1851The Brett Brothers Lay the First Telegraph Cable between England and France 1850 – 1858Paul Julius Reuter Founds the Reuters News Service Circa 1850Flong as an "Immutable Form of Information Capture" 1850 – 1937Incunabula of the Zulu Language, and a Zulu Beadwork Love Letter 1850 – 1858Robert Mallet Founds the Science of Seismology August 14, 1850The Public Libraries Act of 1850 1851Alfred Smee Speculates About a Logic Machine that Might Occupy a Space Larger than London 1851Augustus De Morgan Proposes Quantitative Study of Vocabulary in Literary Investigation 1851 – 1860Henry David Thoreau's "In Wildness is the Preservation of the World." 1851 – 1852James Glaisher Proposes Using Microphotography for Document Preservation 1851Amir Kabir Founds the First Modern Institution of Learning in Iran September 18, 1851 – 1857Henry Jarvis Raymond & George Jones Found "The New York Times" December 24, 1851Fire Destroys Two-Thirds of the Library of Congress 1852Charles Jewett Proposes a National Union Catalogue 1852 – 1862Paul Gustave Froment Invents the Micropantograph April 29, 1852Roget's Thesaurus is First Published 50 Years After its Composition 1854 – July 27, 1866Cyrus Field and the Three Attempts to Lay the Atlantic Cable 1854 – July 1857Paul Pretsch's "Photographic Art Treasures," the First Book of Printed Reproductions of Photographs 1854Allen's Victoria Regia: The First Large Scale Chromolithographed Book Produced in the U.S. 1854Mirza Mohammad-Vali Hakimbashi Introduces Western Anatomical Illustration into Persian Culture 1855
The Hughes telegraph, the first telegraph printing text on a paper tape; this one was manufactureed by Siemens and Halske, Germany (Warsaw Muzeum Techniki).
David Edward Hughes Invents a Mechanism for Printing Telegraph Messages
1855Matthew Maury Writes the First Widely Read 19th Century Textbook of Oceanography and Atmospherics 1855
Detail of lithograph from Addison's On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules. Please click on link to view and resize larger image.  
Thomas Addison Describes "Addison's Disease"
1855Isaiah Deck Describes the Production of Mummy Paper in Nineteenth Century America December 22, 1855The "Illustrated London News" Christmas Supplement, the First Newspaper Printed in Color 1856Geroge Parker Bidder, One of the Most Remarkable Human Computers 1856Andrea Crestadoro Describes Keyword in Context Indexing 1856 – 1867
Title page of Hermann von Helmholtz's Handbuch der physiologischen Optik. Please click on link to view and resize entire page.
Hermann von Helmholtz Issues "Physiological Optics", Over 11 Years
December 2, 1856Historians Stanhope, Macaulay & Carlyle Found the National Portrait Gallery 1857 – 1864William Farr Publishes the First Instances of a Printing Calculator Used to Do Original Work 1857Hugh Miller Issues the First Book to Include a Photograph of its Author 1857The First Dust Jackets in the Flap-Style on Books Printed in English 1857Lorin Blodget Founds of American Climatology and Meteorology 1857Richard Chenevix Trench Describes the Need for What Would Become the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) 1857Jules Antoine Lissajous Describes Lissajous Figures May 5 – October 17, 1857"The Art Treasures of Great Britain," Perhaps the Largest Art Exhibition ever Held 1858Queen Victoria Charters the First Distance Learning Program 1858 – January 1859
Detail from Nightingale's
Florence Nightingale's Rose Diagram
1858Perhaps the Earliest Australian Type Specimen and Trade Catalogue January 1858 – 1874Brixham Cave Supplies Proof of Human Antiquity August 20, 1858
Charles Darwin
Darwin & Wallace Issue the First Printed Exposition of the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
1859 – 1861"Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management": One of the Major Publishing Successes of the 19th Century 1859Edward Edwards Issues the First Comprehensive Account of the Development of Libraries 1859The First Book on Baseball is Issue Anonymously 1859François Willème Invents Photosculpture: Early 3D Imaging February 4, 1859Constantin von Tischendorf Discovers and Acquires the Codex Sinaiticus: Controversial and Disputed April 7, 1859Having Refused to Support Babbage, the British Government Pays for a Difference Engine Produced in Sweden August 27, 1859The First Successful Oil Well is Drilled in Titusville, Pennsylvania November 24, 1859
The title page of On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin's "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection"
1860100,000 Tons of Paper, Only 4% Made by Hand 1860de Martinville Produces the Earliest Sound Recordings, without Playback 1860Henry Chadwick Issues the First Compilation of Baseball Statistics 1860 – 1861The Autograph Manuscript of Mill's "Considerations on Representative Government" April 3, 1860 – October 26, 1861The Pony Express: Operational for Just a Little More than One Year June 16, 1860The Origins of Network Neutrality Have Their Basis in Telegraph Networks October 13, 1860"Boston as the Eagle and Wild Goose See It": the First Clear Photographic Aerial View of a City 1861 – 1864Edouard Lartet & Henry Christy Issue Probably the Earliest Paper on Paleolithic Mobiliary Art 1861 – 1869Perhaps the First Book on Solar Energy and its Industrial Applications 1861James Clerk Maxwell Produces the First Color Photograph October 24, 1861New York and San Francisco are Connected by Telegraph October 27, 1861Johann Philipp Reis, the True Inventor of the Telephone? 1862William A. Hammond Founds the National Museum of Health and Medicine 1862Ludwig Ritter von Köchel Issues the Köchel-Verzeichnis of Mozart's Works 1862Abraham Lincoln's Surveillance of Telecommunications During the American Civil War 1862Henry Walter Bates Describes "Batesian Mimicry" 1862 – 1863Bibliographer Henry Bradshaw Rebuts Constantine Simonides' Claim that Simonides had Forged the Codex Sinaiticus July 1, 1862
Text of first page of HR 312 also known as the Revenue Act of 1862.
Origins of the Internal Revenue Service
1863The Largest Dictionary in Book Form January 1863Charles Lyell Issues "The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man" January 1, 1863 – 1864Lincoln Issues the Emancipation Proclamation January 10, 1863The First Subway, The Metropolitan Railway, Opens in London January 11, 18633-D Solar Imaging Reveals Details of Sunken Civil-War Era Steampship February 1863Thomas Huxley Issues "Man's Place in Nature" June 13, 1863Samuel Butler's "Darwin among the Machines" 1864Babbage's "Passages from the Life of a Philosopher" 1864Marsh's "Man and Nature" : Fountainhead of the Conservation Movement 1864Hemoglobin is Named 1865Maxwell's Field Equations of Electromagnetism 1865Frederick Law Olmsted Presents the Philosophical Justification for Public Preservation of Great Natural Scenery 1865The First Dust Jacket Issued by a Publisher in the United States 1865John Lubbock's "Pre-Historic Times" is Published 1865 – 1867 The Role of Women as Typesetters in the French Printing Industry 1866Osman Zeki Bey Becomes the First Printer Authorized to the Print the Qur'an in Constantinople 1866Benjamin Tilghman Invents the Sulfite Pulping Process for Manufacturing Paper from Wood Pulp 1866
Augustinian Abbey of St. Thomas in Brno
Mendel's Discovery of the Mendelian Ratios
1867Edward A. Calahan Invents the Stock Ticker 1867The Surgeon General's Library & Museum Are Moved to the Site of Lincoln's Assassination 1867Imprimerie Alfred Mame's Spectacular Portrayal of Large Scale Book Manufacturing September 14, 1867Marx's "Das Kapital" is Published 1868The Times of London Prints on Continuous Paper, Increasing Production 1868Maxwell's "On Governors" : Exposition on Feedback Mechanisms 1868
Sholes and Glidden typewriter documentation.  The machine, patented on June 23, 1868, resembled
Sholes, Soule, & Glidden Invent the First Device to Allow the Operator to Write Faster than a Person Writing by Hand
1868Alexander Kennedy Issues the First Book on Birds Illustrated with Actual Photographs 1868Joel Munsell Produces a Sale Catalogue of His Collection of Rare Books on Printing and Related Topics 1869Alfred R. Wallace's "The Malay Archipelago" Describes the Wallace Line 1869Mendeleev's Discovery of the Periodic Law and the Periodic Table 1869 – 1871
Felix Hoppe Seyler
Johannes Friedrich Miescher Discovers DNA
1869Francis Galton Issues "Hereditary Genius" November 20, 1869Charles Joseph Minard Issues One of the Best Statistical Graphic Ever Drawn 1870William Stanley Jevons Constructs the First Logic Machine to Solve Complicated Problems Faster than Man 1870British Telegraph is Nationalized 1870 – 1874Émile Baudot Invents the Baudot Code, the First Means of Digital Communication 1870Requiring Universal Education of Children Between the Ages of 5 and 12 in England and Wales April 1870Henry Bradshaw Begins Modern Bibliographical Analysis September 19, 1870 – January 28, 1871The Pigeon Post into Paris: The First Important Application of Microfilm 1871 – 1873Heinrich Schliemann Discovers the Ancient City of Troy 1871Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet Establishes the Mathematical Study of Anthropological Data 1871Darwin Predicts that Human Origins Will be Found in Africa 1872Charles Babbage's Library: the First Catalogue of a Library on Computing and its History 1872Samuel Butler Novel "Erewhon" Describes Artificial Consciousness 1872Darwin Founds Ethology, Studies the Conveyance of Information, and Contributes to Psychology 1872 – June 15, 1878Eadweard Muybridge Produces the First Photographs of Motion July 25 – November 29, 1872Henry Stevens Calls for a Central Bibliographical Bureau Which Would Also Store Images August 1872Montgomery Ward Issues the First General Merchandise Mail Order Catalogue 1873Willoughby Smith Discovers the Photoconductivity of Selenium 1873Forest and Stream Magazine Promotes Conservation 1873 – 1874
Latham Sholes's 1878 QWERTY keyboard layout
The Sholes & Glidden Type Writer, with the First QWERTY Keyboard
1873 – 1886Bigmore & Wyman Issue the First Comprehensive Bibliography of the History of Printing 1873 – 1874Robert Clark Kedzie Issues "Poisonous Papers," and a Poisonous Book Published in an Edition of 100 Copies 1873 – 1950Anthony Comstock Founds the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice and Lobbies for Passage of the "Comstock Law" March 4, 1873 – September 23, 1889The "Daily Graphic" of New York, Probably the First Illustrated Daily Newspaper, Begins Publication 1874
Circular note, launched in 1874 by Thomas Cook. 
No higher resolution image available at this time.
"Circular Notes", a Precursor of Traveler's Cheques, are Introduced
1874 – 1878Josiah Willard Gibbs Issues The Principia of Thermodynamics 1874Francis Amasa Walker Issues The First National Thematic Atlas 1874James Clerk Maxwell's Three-Dimensional Thermodynamic Surface in Clay Circa 1875
Detail of image from Baldwin's Calculating Machine. See larger image and resize image for complete picture.
Baldwin & Odhner Invent Calculators Using a True Variable-Toothed Gear
1875Printing Two Sides of Paper Simultaneously 1875The First Logarithmic Table Produced by a Calculating Machine 1875
Thomas Edison's electric pen.
Edison Invents the "Electric Pen": Forerunner of the Mimeograph
1875Shepardizing: A Legal Citation System June 30, 1875The "New York Tribune" Publishes the First Significant Series of Illustrations in a Daily Newspaper