4406 entries. 94 themes. Last updated December 26, 2016.

Timeline Outline ViewEra: 1940 - 1950   |   Theme: All Themes


1940Glamorous Film Actress Hedy Lamarr Invents Spread-Sprectrum 1940NIMATRON: An Early Electromechanical Machine to Play the Game of Nim April 1940Benjamin Lee Whorf Asks "Does Language Influence Thought?" May 6 – May 16, 1940
Detail of cover of catalogue for An Exhibition of Printing at the Fitzwilliam Museum.  Please click to view entire cover of catalogue.
The Fitzwilliam Museum Exhibition of Printing: Precursor to "Printing and the Mind of Man"
May 25, 1940Sealing of the Crypt of Civilization August – December 1940The Design and Principles of John Atanasoff's ABC Machine, and What John Mauchly Knew About It 1941IBM Introduces a Typewriter with Proportional Spacing 1941Borges' Universe as a Library, or Universal Library or Archive 1941 – 1946The First Application of Electric Punched Card Tabulating Equipment in Crystal Structure Analysis 1941 – November 25, 2013The Maltese Falcon Film Prop Sells for $4,085,000 1941 – 1945Fritz Albert Lipmann Discovers the Process by Which Cells Make Available the Energy to Drive Their Manufacturing Processes April 6, 1941The Nazis Destroy the National Library of Serbia June 1941 – October 2, 1955Key Events in the Development of the First General Purpose Electronic Digital Computer, the ENIAC November 1941The "One Gene- One Enzyme" Hypothesis December 7, 1941Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor; U.S. Declares War on Japan 1942Norbert Weiner Formulates Communication Theory as a Statistical Problem 1942 – 1953Book-Form Publication of the Library of Congress Catalogue Begins: 167 Volumes Plus 42 Volumes of Supplement 1942The Birth of Ecosystem Ecology March 1942Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics + the Zeroth Law August 1942"Waldo" : Imagining Remote Manipulators and TeleRobotics 1943IBM's Vacuum Tube Multiplier, the First Complete Machine to Perform Arithmetic Electronically 1943Key Developments in Jay W. Forrester's Project Whirlwind 1943McCulloch & Pitts Publish the First Mathematical Model of a Neural Network 1943 – 1960MTAC: The First Computing Journal 1943Luria & Delbrück Demonstrate that Natural Selection Occurs in Bacteria March 1943 – 1944Schrödinger's "What is Life?" "The Program has to Build the Machinery to Execute Itself" September 1943The Bell Labs Relay Interpolator, Possibly the First Electromechanical Computer to Run Programs in the U.S. 1944Von Neumann & Morgenstern Issue "The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior" 1944Using Microforms to Conserve Library Space 1944Demonstration that DNA is Responsible for Bacterial Transformation January 29, 1944 – October 19, 1973Key Developments Concerning the ENIAC Patent, the Patent on the General Purpose Electronic Digital Computer October 1944Repeated Dispersal and Eventual Burning of the Greatest Library in Poland December 1944The Fastest Digital Calculators in the U.S. 1945The Use of Telegraphy Peaks in the U.S. 1945 – 1949Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems 1945 – 1949The Hinman Collator 1945The Initial Interrogations of the Nazi Rocket Team and the First Publication Outside of Nazi Germany of Rocketry Research at Peenemunde East 1945An Antiquarian Bookseller Predicts an Alternative to the Printed Codex 1945"From Script to Print. An Introduction to Medieval Literature" February – March 1945Bombing of Dresden Destroys Books and Manuscripts April 27, 1945The Collapse of the Third Reich is Followed by VE Day June 30, 1945Von Neumann Privately Circulates the First Theoretical Description of a Stored-Program Computer September 2, 1945World War II Ends September 9, 1945The First Use of "Bug" in the Context of Computing September 30, 1945The First Engineering Report on the EDVAC Circa October 1945 – February 20, 1947Turing's Main Hardware Design After World War II, the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE) October 1945Arthur C. Clarke Predicts Communication by Geosynchronous Satellites 1946 – 1953The First Working Phototypesetting Machine and the First Book it Typeset 1946 – 1956DuMont Television: The First Commercial Television Network 1946 – 1953The Macy Conferences on Cybernetics Occur 1946Avery, McLeod & McCarty Discover that Bacteria Share Genetic Information Through Bacterial Conjugation 1946Humphrey Bogart and Dorothy Malone Appear in Probably the Most Famous Bookstore Scene in Movie History March 1946 – 1947Key Developments in von Neumann's IAS Electronic Computer Project March 15, 1946Eckert & Mauchly Found Electronic Control Co., the World's First Electronic Computer Company July 1946The First Speculation that Amino Acids are Determined by Nucleic Acids July 8 – 1946The Moore School Lectures Take Place November 12, 1946A Soroban Beats an Electric Calculator 1947Couffignal Decides against Building a Stored-Program Computer in France 1947Booth & Britten Write the Earliest Program Leading toward Machine Translation 1947The First Phototypesetter 1947Kurt Herzstark Invents the Curta, the Most Advanced Small Mechanical Calculator 1947 – 1956Discovery of the "Dead Sea Scrolls" 1947The Society of Archivists (England) is Founded 1947The International League of Antiquarian Booksellers (ILAB) is Founded 1947Dennis Gabor Invents Holography 1947Documentary Film on Letterpress Book Production 1947"The Cathodre Ray Tube Amusement Device," Probably the Oldest Interactive Electronic Game 1947One of the First Studies of Pattern Recognition 1947Vocational Film about the Printing Industry January 7 – January 10, 1947The First Large Conference on Electronic Computers is Held in Cambridge, Massachusetts February 21, 1947Edwin Land Demonstrates the Polaroid Land Camera Model 95, the First "Instant" Film Camera March 4 – May 9, 1947Warren Weaver Suggests Applying Cryptanalysis Techniques to Translation April 1947 – August 16, 1948Goldstine & von Neumann Write the First Theoretical Discussion of Programming a Stored-Program Computer April 1947The First Published Photographs of the Earth Taken From Space April 24, 1947 – November 4, 1952Key Events in the Development of the UNIVAC, the First Electronic Computer Widely Sold in the United States September 15, 1947The EACM, Predecessor of the ACM, Holds its First Meeting October 1947 – September 1950Innovative Aspects of the BINAC, the First Electronic Computer Ever Sold December 1947Origins of NLM's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) December 23, 1947Bardeen, Brattain & Shockley Invent the Point-Contact Transistor 1948First Assemblage of Digital Electronics Replaceable as a Unit 1948Norbert Wiener Issues "Cybernetics", the First Widely Distributed Book on Electronic Computing 1948Andrew D. Booth Invents the First Magnetic Drum Memory 1948 – 1949The First Electronic Autonomous Robots: the Origin of Social Robotics 1948Columbia Records Introduces the First Long Playing Record (LP) 1948The Final Edition of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum is Published 1948The "Survivor's Talmud" is Published by the U.S. Army 1948Sven Furberg First Proposes a Helical Structure for DNA January 1948IBM's SSEC, the First Computer that Can Modify a Stored Program June 1948Cable Television is Introduced, First in the Mountains of Pennsylvania June 1948Milton Berle, "Mr. Television," Causes the Sale of TV Sets to Double June 21, 1948The Williams Tube and the "Manchester Baby," the First Operational Stored-Program Computer Runs its First Program July – October 1948Shannon's "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" July 1948 – 1950Alan Turing's Contributions to Artificial Intelligence September 20, 1948Comparing the Functions of Genes to Self-Reproducing Automata December 10, 1948The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is Adopted by the United Nations 1949The Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem 1949Edmund Berkeley's "Giant Brains," the First Popular Book on Electronic Computers 1949 – 1951Foundation of MIT's Lincoln Laboratory and SAGE 1949The Antiquarian Booksellers Association of American (ABAA) is Founded 1949Orwell's "Nineteen Eighty-Four" is Published 1949" A Sand County Almanac," Classic of the Environmental Movement 1949 – 1951Roberto Busa & IBM Adapt Punched Card Tabulating to Sort Words in a Literary Text: The Origins of Humanities Computing 1949Discovery of the Sex Chromatin: Beginning of Cytogenetics 1949Donald Hebb Formulates the "Hebb Synapse" in Neuropsychological Theory April 1949 – January 1953One of the Earliest Attempts at Automating Information Retrieval May 6, 1949The EDSAC, the First Easily Used Fully Functional Stored-Program Computer, Runs its First Program June 1949 – 1952"The Key to the Whole Double Helix Story" Before Watson & Crick June 9, 1949A Neurosurgeon Discusses the Differences between Computers and the Human Brain July 15, 1949The Origin of Statistical Machine Translation November 1949The First Stored-Program Computer in Australia November 1949The Beginning of the Molecular Approach to Disease December 1949Proof that a Program Could Reproduce Itself December 7, 1949Enciclopedia Mecanica, Forerunner of the Electronic Book 1950Jule Charney, Agnar Fjörtoff & John von Neumann Report the First Weather Forecast by Electronic Computer 1950"High-Speed Computing Devices," the First Textbook on How to Build an Electronic Computer 1950 – 1951Wilkes,Wheeler & Gill: the First Treatise on Software for an Operational Stored-Program Computer 1950Compiling a Bibliography by Electric Punched Card Tabulating 1950The Hamming Codes 195011,638 New Books Are Published in the U.K. 1950After 1954 More News Was Distributed Electronically than on Paper 1950 – 1954The IBM NORC, the First Supercomputer 1950The Bic Pen 1950Archival Records Include "Machine-Readable Materials" 1950Coining the Expression, Information Retrieval 1950Schmieder's Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis 1950 – 1953The Earliest Pioneer in Electronic Art 1950"Chargaff's Rules" 1950"Newspaper Story": a Film About Newspaper Production January 23, 1950"Can Man Build a Superman?" February 1950
Early Diners' Club card.
"Diners Club", the First Credit Card
February 6, 1950Eckert-Mauchly is Sold to Remington Rand March 1950Shannon Issues the First Technical Paper on Computer Chess May – November 1950Simon, the First Personal Computer November 6, 1950 – 1951MESM, the First Russian Stored-Program Computer