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The First Paper on Machine Learning (1957)

In 1957 American mathematician and researcher in artificial intelligence Ray Solomonoff published "An Inductive Inference Machine". IRE Convention Record, Section on Information Theory, Part 2 (1957) 56-62. This was the first paper written on machine learning. It emphasized the importance of training sequences, and the use of parts of previous solutions to problems in constructing trial solutions to new problems. Solomonoff presented an early version of this paper at the 1956 Dartmouth Summer Research Conference on Artificial Intelligence.  In March 2012 a copy of that version was available at this link.