4406 entries. 94 themes. Last updated December 26, 2016.

Timeline Outline ViewEra: 2,800,000 BCE - 8,000 BCE   |   Theme: Science

Theme

Circa 2,800,000 BCEThe Earliest Known Remains of the Genus Homo Circa 2,500,000 BCE – 500,000 BCE
Olduvai Gorge
The First Industrial Complex
Circa 2,400,000 BCE – 1,400,000 BCE
Fragmented part of a lower mandible (which still holds thirteen teeth, as well as unerupted wisdom teeth). (Click on image to view larger.)
"Jonny's Child": Homo habilis
Circa 1,950,000 BCE – 1,780,000 BCE
Skull of Malapa Hominin 1. MH1 also known as australopethicus sediba. (Click on image to view larger.)
A New Hominid Species is Discovered with the Help of Satellite Imagery
Circa 1,800,000 BCE
Fossil skull of D2700. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Oldest Hominin Fossils Found Outside of Africa
Circa 1,800,000 BCE – 141,000 BCE
Original fossil bones of Pithecanthropus erectus (now Homo erectus) found in Java in 1891. (Click on image to view larger.)
Pithecanthropus erectus, the First Known Specimen of Homo erectus
Circa 1,800,000 BCEThe Earliest Completely Preserved Adult Hominid Skull Circa 1,650,000 BCE – 100,000 BCE
A flint biface, discovered in Saint-Acheul, France.
Acheulean or Mode 2 Industries
Circa 1,530,000 BCE – 1,510,000 BCE
Ancient footprints at Koobi Fora. Photograph by Brian Richmond. (View Larger)
The Earliest Preserved Footprints of Our Ancestors
Circa 1,500,000 BCE
Five bone tools excavated in Swartkrans, South Africa, once used by Parantrhopus robustus for foraging purposes. Photography by Jim Di Loreto and Don Hurlbert, Smithsonian Institution. (View Larger)
Early Humans Make Bone Tools
Circa 1,500,000 BCE
Fossil skull and jawbone of Turkana Boy. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Most Complete Early Human Skeleton
Circa 1,200,000 BCE
The petite jaw suggests the oldest-found European was probably female.
The Earliest Human Remains from Western Europe
Circa 950,000 BCE – 780,000 BCE
Ancient stone tools discovered at the Hapisburgh excavation site, East Anglia, England. Photocredit: Parfitt et al. Nature (View Larger)
Humans May Have Lived in Britain as Early as 950,000 Years Ago
Circa 900,000 BCEThe Oldest Human Footprints in Europe, Identified Using 3D Imaging Circa 500,000 BCE
Example of nearly 500,000 year-old hafted spear tips from Kathu Pan 1. Photo by Jayne Wilkins. (Click on image to view larger.)
Early Humans Hunt with Stone-Tipped Spears
Circa 400,000 BCE
The
The Oldest Almost Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of a Hominin
Circa 350,000 BCE – 325,000 BCEThe Earliest Synchronic Use of Bifacial and Levallois Technology Outside Africa Suggests that the Technology Evolved Independently in Multiple Locations Circa 195,000 BCE
Scull from the River Omo. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Oldest Fossil Remains of Anatomically Modern Humans
Circa 164,000 BCE – 70,000 BCE
A silcrete nodule exhibiting the signs of experimental heat-treatment. Photocredit: Science/AAAS. (View Larger)
Early Humans Use Heat-Treated Stone for Tools
Circa 150,000 BCE – 50,000 BCE
Map showing origin and spread of language from southern Africa.  Graphic from the journal Science and The New York Times. (Click on image to view larger.)
Evidence for the Origin of Language in Southwestern Africa
Circa 130,000 BCENeanderthals Produce the World's Earliest Jewelry, From Eagle Talons Circa 100,000 BCE
The largest European specimen of a Wooly Mammoth.
Scientists Sequence Woolly Mammoth Genome--the First of an Extinct Animal
Circa 68,000 BCE
Stone tools (segments) with adhesive from Sibudu Cave.  Segment with red ochre visible to the naked eye as well as microscopic views of red ochre and plant gum on the tool. (Click on image to view larger.)
From Sibudu Cave: the Earliest Known Creation and Use of Compound Adhesives, Suggesting Complex Cognition
Circa 60,000 BCEComputational Micro-Biomechanical Analysis of Neanderthal's Fossilized Hyoid Bone Suggests that Neanderthals Could Speak Circa 49,000 BCE – 43,000 BCE
A bone tool known as a lissoir, possibly used to prepare animal skins. Image courtesy of the Abri Peyrony and Pech de l'Azé I Projects. (Click on image to view larger.)
Neanderthals Made the First Specialized Bone Tools in Europe
Circa 48,000 BCEProof that Neanderthals Ate Vegetables as Well as Meat, in the Earliest Dated Human Faeces Circa 43,000 BCEGenome of the Oldest Human Fossil Found Outside of Africa and the Near East Shows that Humans and Neanderthals Interbred 50,000-60,000 Years Ago Circa 41,000 BCE
Cro Magnon skull. (Click on image to view larger.)
Discovery of the Cro-Magnons, the First European Early Modern Humans
Circa 40,000 BCE
Fossilized scullcap of Neanderthal 1. (Click on image to view larger.
The First Specimen to be Recognized as an Early Human Fossil
Circa 39,000 BCE
Molar found in Denisova Cave of the Altay Mountains in Southern Siberia. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Denisova Hominin, a Third Kind of Human
38,000 BCE
The introduction of sturdy shoes led weaker toes.
The First Sturdy Shoes are Invented
Circa 36,000 BCE
Svante Pääbo
Neanderthal Genome Reveals Interbreeding with Humans
Circa 31,000 BCE
Bones of the
The First Genuine Human Fossil Skeleton Discovered by a Scientist
Circa 16,000 BCE
Photocredit: Chip Clark, Smithsonian Institution. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Pottery From Japan
Circa 10,000 BCEThe Holocene Interglacial Period Begins