4406 entries. 94 themes. Last updated December 26, 2016.

Timeline Outline ViewEra: All Eras   |   Theme: Art and Science, Medicine, Technology


Circa 130,000 BCENeanderthals Produce the World's Earliest Jewelry, From Eagle Talons Circa 11,000 BCE
Flutings at Rouffignac.  Both children and adults created cave art known as finger flutings in the French caverns of Rouffignac roughly 13,000 years ago. Credit: Jessica Cooney / Leslie van Gelder. (Click on image to view larger.)
Pre-Historic Art Created by Children at the Cave of a Hundred Mammoths, Rouffignac
1,600 BCE
The Nebra Sky Disk. (View Larger)
The Nebra Sky Disk
30 BCE – 25 CE
The Portland Vase. Shown is the first of two scenes. (View Larger)
The Portland Vase: Classical Connoisseurship, Influence, Destruction &…
Circa 350 CE
The Earliest Egyptian Printed Cloth
Circa 512
An illustration of illustration of the species 'Akoniton napellus,' folio 67v. (View Larger)
Probably the Most Beautiful of the Earliest Surviving Scientific Codices
Circa 625
Folio 90v of the Naples Dioscurides, a description of the Mandrake. (View Larger)
The Naples Dioscorides
649 – 684
A depiction of a constellation from the Dunhuang Chinese Sky. (View Larger)
The Earliest Known Star Atlas
Circa 825A Studio for Royal Mayan Scribes in the Ninth Century 1012 – 1021
A Qatarian postage stamp portraying Ibn al-Haitham. (View Larger)  <p>Persian scientist Abu Ali Al-Hasan <a href=
Construction of the First Camera Obscura
The Coronation of Henry IV of Liber ad honorem Augusi sive de rebus Siculis, folio 105r of MS. 120 II, Berne Municipal Library. (View Larger)
A Graphic Portrayal of 12th Century Life in Italy and Sicily
Circa 1200
A scence from the long scroll 'Along the River During Qing Ming Festival,' in which a fifteen column saunpan is visible next to the account book and doctor's prescriptions. (View Larger)
The Suanpan
Circa 1230
Villard's schematic illustration of a perpetual-motion machine. Folio 1 of Fr.19093 preserved at the Bibliotheque Nationale. (View Larger)
The Portfolio of Villard de Honnecourt
The first depiction of spectacles in art: a portrait of Cardinal Hugo of Provence at his writing desk, painted by Tommaso de Mondena in fresco in the Basilica San Nicolo in Treviso, Italy. (View Larger)
The Earliest Depiction of Eyeglasses in a Painted Work of Art
1375One of the Most Beautiful Medieval Atlases 1402 – 1405
This drawing, from Kyeser's 'Bellifortis,' depicts Alexander the Great holding a rocket. The legend of Alexander was a personal facination for Kyeser. (View Larger)
The First 15th Century Illustrated Treatise on Technology
1419 – 1449Technological Manuscripts by the Sienese Archimedes Circa 1420
Folio 2r of Bellicorum instrumentorum liber, showing an 'Oriental siege machine.' (View Larger)
One of the Earliest Surviving Italian Manuscripts on Technology and War…
July 31, 1437Description of Textile Printing and Manuscript Illumination as Well as Painting 1449
Henry VI. (View Larger)
The First English Patent for an Invention
This edition of Roberto Valturio's 'De re militari' contains the first woodcuts on a scientific subject, used not for artistic embellishment but for diagraming and explanation. (View Larger)
"De re militari", the First Printed Book on Technology with the First Woodcuts…
1478Leonardo Builds a Programmable Mechanical Automaton Circa 1485 – 1516Leonardo's Anatomical Drawings July 26, 1491Ketham's "Fasciculus medicinae", the First Medical Book with Anatomical Illustrations 1494Probably the Earliest European Depiction of Native Americans Circa 1504Newly Discovered: The Earliest Surviving Globe Showing the New World May 22, 1511
 The first printed edition of 'De Architectura,' originally written by Roman architect Marcus Virtuvius Pollio, was printed in Venice in 1511 and contained 136 woodcut illustrations and diagrams.  (View Larger)
Fra Giovanni Giocondo Issues the First Illustrated Edition of Vitruvius
1521Giacomo Berengario da Carpi Issues the First Work Since the Time of Galen to Show Original Anatomical Information Based upon Personal Investigation & Observation July 15, 1521
Detail of Title Page of De Architectura Libri Dece.  Please click on the image to see the full page.
Cesare Cesariano & Colleagues Interpret Roman Architecture in the Artistic Language of the Renaissance
Detail of recto 32 of Berengario da Carpi's Isagoge breves perlucide ac uberime in anatomia humani corporis.  Please click on image to view entire page.
Berengario da Carpi Issues a Condensation of his Commentary on Mondino
1528Albrecht Dürer Expounds the Aesthetic Anatomy of Human Proportion 1530 – 1536Otto Brunfels & Hans Weiditz Issue the First Accurate, Detailed Woodcuts of Plants Taken Directly from Nature 1536 – 1537
 Johann Dryander, one of the first German doctors to perform public disections, published his 'Anatomia Capitis Humani' in 1536, which contained the most extensive study on the human head to date, and the first 'Galenic dissection' of the brain.  (View Larger)
Johann Dryander & Hans Brosamer Issue the First Significant Book on the…
1542Leonhard Fuchs, Albrecht Mayer, Heinrich Füllmaurer & Viet Rudolf Speckle Issue the First "Modern" Herbal, with Self-Portraits of the Artists June 1543
 The title page of Andreas Versalius' 'De humani corporis fabrica libri septem,' published in 1543, was a revolutionary work of unmatched scientific and artistic precision.  (View Larger)
Andreas Vesalius Produces a Unprecedented Blend of Scientific Exposition,…
June 1543Simultaneously with the "Fabrica" Vesalius Issues a Condensation, or Road-Map, of the Encyclopedic Work 1545 – 1546Charles Estienne Includes Erotic Images Made Acceptable by their Adaptation for Medical Purposes 1545Guido Guidi Issues a Spectacular Book of Renaissance Surgery and Graphic Arts October 1545 – 1553Thomas Geminus Issues the First Edition of Vesalius Published in England 1556Juan Valverde de Amusco Issues the First Great Original Spanish Medical Book, Illustrated and Printed in Rome 1556Ulisse Aldrovandi's Guide to Ancient Statuary in Rome 1559Who Discovered the Pulmonary Circulation? Servetus, Valverde or Columbo? Circa 1560The Codex Selden/ Codex Añute, a Precolonial Mexican Palimpsest 1560Jean Cousin the Elder Issues "Livre de perspective" 1563Bartholomeo Eustachi Discovers the Eustachian Tubes and Many Other Anatomical Features 1568Jost Amman's Images of Trades and Technologies, with Descriptions in Verse 1588Agostini Ramelli Describes a Renaissance Information Retrieval Device and Other Machines 1590Architect Domenico Fontana Describes Moving the Obelisk 1598
Detail of head of horse from page of the Dell'anotomia [sic], et dell'infirmita del cavallo.  Click on link below to view and resize full image.
Ottavio Ruini Issues the First Book Devoted Exclusively to the Structure of an Animal Other than Man
August 17, 1603Federico Cesi Founds the Accademia dei Lincei, the First Scientific Society 1608Odoardo Fialetti Creates Probably the First Printed Manual for Drawing Human Anatomy November 1609 – March 13, 1610Galileo Issues Images of Revolutionary Discoveries Concerning the Universe; and the Story of a Remarkable Forgery 1613François d'Aguilon & Peter Paul Rubens Describe Optics and Color Theory 1617Michael Maier Publishes Early Multimedia: Words, Images and Music Circa 1625 – 1665Cassiano & Carlo Antonio dal Pozzo Attempt to Record All Human Knowledge in Visual Form 1647Johannes Hevelius Issues the First Extensive Moon Atlas 1665Robert Hooke's Graphic Portrayal of the Hitherto Unknown Microcosm 1685
Plate from Bidloo's Anatomia humani corporis. Please click on the link below to view and resize full page. 
Anatomy in the Style of Dutch Still-Life Painting
1698Baroque Anatomy and Plagiarism (?) 1701 – 1725Friedrich Ruysch's Anatomical Preparations: Surrealism Centuries Before Surrealism Became Fashionable 1704Opticks: Isaac Newton's Theories of Light & Color . . . 1719 – 1725Jacob Christophe Le Blon Invents the Three-Color Process of Color Printing 1736 – 1741Albinus & Ladmiral Issue the First Full Color Printing by the Three-Color Process to Illustrate a Medical or Scientific Book 1747Bernhard Siegfried Albinus' Cool, Elegant Aesthetic of Anatomy 1779
Detail of plate from Gamelin's Nouveau recueil d'ostéologie et de myologie, dessin‚ d'après nature. . . pour l'utilit‚ des sciences et des arts..  Please click on link below to view and resize full image.
Jacques Gamelin Issues an Anatomy for Artists including Fantastical Elements
Circa 1782Léonard Defrance Creates Panel Paintings of the Operations of a French Enlightenment Printing Shop 1789Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, Martyr to Chemistry 1797Giovanni Battista Venturi Begins Scientific and Art Historical Studies on Leonardo da Vinci 1823 – 1826The Double Publication of the Double Elephant Folio of Anatomy 1834 – 1835The First Commercially Viable Method of Color Printing 1839
Portrait of Jacquard woven in silk on a Jacquard loom.
The Most Famous Image in the Early History of Computing
October 1843 – 1853The First Book Illustrated with Photographs June 1844 – April 1846The First Photographically Illustrated Book Commercially Published. 1846Alfred Bonnardot Issues the First Book on the Restoration of Rare Books and their Bindings 1854Allen's Victoria Regia: The First Large Scale Chromolithographed Book Produced in the U.S. 1854 – July 1857Paul Pretsch's "Photographic Art Treasures," the First Book of Printed Reproductions of Photographs 1859François Willème Invents Photosculpture: Early 3D Imaging 1874Francis Amasa Walker Issues The First National Thematic Atlas 1878Invention of Photogravure 1886Gaston Tissandier Issues The First Book on Aerial Photography September 5, 1886"Le Journal Illustré" Publishes the First Photo-Interview 1901 – October 24, 2012Revealing a Hidden Image in a 1901 Painting by Picasso in a 2012 Newspaper Article 1907 – 1930Curtis's The North American Indian 1912"Ridgway Colors" 1933The Henry Graves Supercomplication, the Most Valuable Watch in the World 1950 – 1953The Earliest Pioneer in Electronic Art January 23, 1950"Can Man Build a Superman?" 1953 – 1957Probably the First Computer-Controlled Aesthetic System October 1954The First Use of a Computer to Write Literary Texts 1960
William A Fetter: while working for Boeing, made the first computer model of the human body (
William Fetter Coins the Term "Computer Graphics"
August 28, 1962Among the Beginnings of Computer Art in the United States 1963 – 1966Using his BEFLIX Computer Animation Language, Ken Knowlton Produces "A Computer Technique for the Production of Animated Movies" 1964
The First to Create Three-Dimensional Images of the Human Body Using a Computer
Example of image from Computer Graphics in Communication.  Please click to view larger image.
William Fetter Issues the First Book on Computer Graphics
February 5 – November 26, 1965The Earliest Public Exhibitions of Computer Art 1968The Computer Artis Society, the First Society for Computer Art, is Founded in London 1968"Incredible Machine" State of the Art in Computer Generated Film, Graphics and Music in 1968 August 2 – October 20, 1968Cybernetic Serendipity: The First Widely-Attended International Exhibition of Computer Art November 27, 1968 – February 9, 1969K. G. Pontius Hultén Curates "The Machine as Seen at the End of the Mechanical Age" : An Art Exhibition December 1968
Cover of Computer Art and Human Response by Lloyd Sumner.
Lloyd Sumner Issues The First Monograph by a Computer Artist
Cover of Computergraphik-Computerkunst, by H.W. Franke. Please click on image to see larger version of image.
Franke Issues the First Comprehensive Treatise on Computer Graphics with the First History of Computer Art
1975 – 1982Mandelbrot's "The Fractal Geometry of Nature" 1987The First Digital Image Database of Cultural Materials November 3, 1990An Encoded Sculpture, Still Not Decoded April 7 – October 1, 1995"The Book and Beyond" Exhibition Takes Place 1998The Digital Michelangelo Project 1999Foundation of Designboom September 30, 2005
Olaf Sporns
Connectomes: Elements of Connections Forming the Human Brain
December 14, 2005
The Pixar logo
Pixar at MOMA
April 2006
A self-portrait by Leonardo da Vinci in red chalk
Damage to Codex Atlanticus Caused by Efforts at Preservation
June 1, 2009The First Magazine Cover Created as iPhone Art October 13, 2009Discovery of Unknown Portrait by Leonardo Confirmed by a Fingerprint October 22, 2009David Hockney's iPhone Art December 16, 2010An Interactive Pop-Up Children's Book App for the iPhone & iPad 2011"Visual Complexity: Mapping Patterns of Information" February 1, 2011The Google Art Project April 23, 2012Using a Densitometer to Measure Usage of Medieval Books of Hours October 2012The First 3D Printshow Takes Place in London November 12, 2012 – August 9, 2013The First 3D Photo Booth Prints Personal Miniature Figures January 7, 2013Titian's Portrait of Girolamo Fracastoro is Rediscovered February 2013The First 3D Printing Pen; Drawing Enters the Third Dimension December 5, 2013Software Turns a Smartphone into a 3D Scanner December 20, 2013"TOP 10 3D Printing Stories of 2013" February 25, 2014Selfiecity.net. Analysis and Visualization of Thousands of Selfie Photos. . . . May 2015A Machine Vision Algorithm Learns to Attribute Paintings to Specific Artists