4406 entries. 94 themes. Last updated December 26, 2016.

Timeline Outline ViewEra: All Eras   |   Theme: Biology / Evolution


Circa 1,800,000 BCE
Fossil skull of D2700. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Oldest Hominin Fossils Found Outside of Africa
Circa 1,800,000 BCE – 141,000 BCE
Original fossil bones of Pithecanthropus erectus (now Homo erectus) found in Java in 1891. (Click on image to view larger.)
Pithecanthropus erectus, the First Known Specimen of Homo erectus
Circa 400,000 BCE
The Oldest Almost Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of a Hominin
Circa 195,000 BCE
Scull from the River Omo. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Oldest Fossil Remains of Anatomically Modern Humans
Circa 128,000 BCE
Svante Pääbo.
The First Complete Neanderthal Genome Sequence
Circa 100,000 BCE
The largest European specimen of a Wooly Mammoth.
Scientists Sequence Woolly Mammoth Genome--the First of an Extinct Animal
Circa 60,000 BCEComputational Micro-Biomechanical Analysis of Neanderthal's Fossilized Hyoid Bone Suggests that Neanderthals Could Speak Circa 41,000 BCE
Cro Magnon skull. (Click on image to view larger.)
Discovery of the Cro-Magnons, the First European Early Modern Humans
Circa 40,000 BCE
Fossilized scullcap of Neanderthal 1. (Click on image to view larger.
The First Specimen to be Recognized as an Early Human Fossil
Circa 39,000 BCE
Molar found in Denisova Cave of the Altay Mountains in Southern Siberia. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Denisova Hominin, a Third Kind of Human
Circa 36,000 BCE
Svante Pääbo
Neanderthal Genome Reveals Interbreeding with Humans
Circa 350 BCEThe First Description of Book Scorpions, by Aristotle Circa 850The Earliest Surviving Copy of Aristotle's Biological Works 1476Aristotle's "De animalibus", the First Printed Compilation of Works on Biology 1495 – 1498The Aldine Aristotle, One of the Most Significant Publishing Ventures of the Fifteenth Century 1677Precursor of Malthus 1699The Structural Relationships between the Body of Man and the Anthropoid Ape 1744 – 1745
Pierre Louis Maupertuis
Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis' Pioneer Theory of Epigenesis and Biparental Heredity
1777Zimmerman Issues the First Textbook on Zoogeography 1784 – 1791Johann Gottfried von Herder, Enlightenment Precursor of Evolution by Natural Selection 1793Christian Konrad Sprengel Issues the Founding Work of Floral Ecology 1798Malthus on Population 1801
A portrait of Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck
Lamarck Issues the First Published Statement of Lamarckism
1805Humboldt & Bonpland Describe Geographical-Ecological Plant Associations 1809
A portrait of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck by Charles Thévenin
Lamarck's Most Extensive Exposition of his Theory of the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
1818William Charles Wells Publishes the First Recognizable Statement of the Theory of Natural Selection 1819
William Lawrence
William Lawrence Describes the Natural History of Man
1826The First Ecological Experiment; Source of Darwin's Principle of Divergence 1831Identified on his Calling Cards as "The Discoverer of Natural Selection" 1838Foundation of the Cell Theory 1842
A portrait of Japetus Steenstrup 
Steenstrup's Theory of Alternation of Generations or Metagenesis
1844The First Full-Length Exposition in English of an Evolutionary Theory of Biology is Published Anonymously August 20, 1858
Charles Darwin
Darwin & Wallace Issue the First Printed Exposition of the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
November 24, 1859
The title page of On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin's "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection"
1862Henry Walter Bates Describes "Batesian Mimicry" January 1863Charles Lyell Issues "The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man" February 1863Thomas Huxley Issues "Man's Place in Nature" 1864Hemoglobin is Named 1865John Lubbock's "Pre-Historic Times" is Published 1866
Augustinian Abbey of St. Thomas in Brno
Mendel's Discovery of the Mendelian Ratios
1869Alfred R. Wallace's "The Malay Archipelago" Describes the Wallace Line 1869 – 1871
Felix Hoppe Seyler
Johannes Friedrich Miescher Discovers DNA
1871Darwin Predicts that Human Origins Will be Found in Africa 1872Darwin Founds Ethology, Studies the Conveyance of Information, and Contributes to Psychology 1876 – December 2012The First Comprehensive Global Study of Zoogeography, Including the first Global Biodiversity Map 1877Pioneering Study of Community Ecology 1878"Mullerian Mimicry" is Described 1878 – 1882Discovery of Mitosis November 5, 1882Richard Owen Calls Darwin the "Copernicus of Biology" 1883
Wilhelm Roux
Suggesting that the Nucleus Contains the Material Basis of Heredity
Theodor Boveri
Decisive Proof of Chromosomal Individuality
1889 – 1909
Hugo de Vries
Postulating that Inheritance of Specific Traits is Controlled by Particles Called Pangenes
August Weismann
The Weissmann Barrier
William Bateson
Discontinuous Variation as a Source of Evolutionary Change
Francis Galton
Galton's "Law of Ancestral Heredity"
Hugo de Vries
Rediscovery and Confirmation of Mendel's Laws Simultaneously by Three Scientists
1900 – 1902
William Bateson
Coining the Term "Genetics"
1901 – 1903
A painting of Hugo de Vries in his retirement, by Thérèse Schwartze
Mutation Theory is Expounded
Theodor Boveri
Proof that Different Chromosomes Perform Different Functions in Development
1902 Р1908The First Proof of Mendelian Heredity in Humans 1903Genetic Variability, Phenotype and Genotype 1903Theorizing that Chromosomes Carry the Hereditary Material 1903DNA is Distinguished from RNA 1908The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 1909 Р1911The Theory of Polygenic Inheritance 1910Sex-Linked Inheritance; Demonstration that Genes are Carried on Chromosomes September 10, 1911Genetic Recombination is Proposed 1913Using Cross-Over Data to Construct the First Genetic Map 1913Discovery of Nondisjunction 1915Mendelian Laws are Demonstrated by Observable Events Occurring in Cells 1918Foundation of Biometrical Genetics 1919First Use of the Word Gene 1924"Mathematical Theory of Natural and Artificial Selection" 1927Proof that X-Rays Can Induce Mutations 1928Demonstration that Bacteria Can Transfer Genetic Information Through an Unidentified Transforming Factor 1930R. A. Fisher's "The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection" 1931Wright's Quantitative Theory of the Effects of Natural Selection on Populations 1931"The Inborn Factors in Disease" 1933Niels Bohr Asks if Living Processes Could be Described in Terms of Pure Physics and Chemistry 1935Timofeeff-Ressovsky Publishes One of the Key Conceptual Papers in the Early History of Molecular Biology 1938Warren Weaver Coins the Term "Molecular Biology" November 1941The "One Gene- One Enzyme" Hypothesis March 1943 Р1944Schr̦dinger's "What is Life?" "The Program has to Build the Machinery to Execute Itself" 1944Demonstration that DNA is Responsible for Bacterial Transformation 1946Avery, McLeod & McCarty Discover that Bacteria Share Genetic Information Through Bacterial Conjugation July 1946The First Speculation that Amino Acids are Determined by Nucleic Acids 1949Discovery of the Sex Chromatin: Beginning of Cytogenetics June 1949 Р1952"The Key to the Whole Double Helix Story" Before Watson & Crick November 1949The Beginning of the Molecular Approach to Disease 1950"Chargaff's Rules" February 28, 1951Linus Pauling Reports the First Discovery of a Helical Structure for a Protein 1952The Hershey-Chase "Waring Blender Experiment" May 2 РMay 6, 1952Rosalind Franklin's Photo #51 of Crystalline DNA 1953 Р1954The Idea of a Genetic Code April 25, 1953Discovery of The Double Helix May 30, 1953Proposal of a Method of DNA's Method of Replication September 1957Crick's "On Protein Synthesis" 1958First Proof of the Semiconservative Replication of DNA 1961Crick & Brenner Propose The Genetic Code 1961Brenner, Jacob & Meselson Demonstrate the Existence of Messenger RNA 1961Jacob & Monod Explain the Basic Process of Regulating Gene Expression in Bacteria 1967Robert MacArthur & E.O. Wilson Issue "The Theory of "Island" Biogeography" 1968Max Perutz Solves the Molecular Structure of Hemoglobin at High Resolution 1973Cohen & Boyer Demonstrate the First Practical Method for Cloning a Gene 1974The First of the Three Cohen-Boyer Recombinant DNA Cloning Patents is Granted February 1975The Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA April 7, 1976Genentech is Founded 1977The Sanger Method of Rapid DNA Sequencing 1982The First Whole Genome Shotgun Sequence November 15, 1984The First Study of Ancient DNA (aDNA) December 1984 РApril 1987Origins of the Human Genome Project 1986The First Semi-Automatic DNA Sequencer 1991Expressed Sequence Tags May 1998Venter Founds Celera Genomics June 26, 2000
The Celera logo
The Most Extensive Computation Undertaken in Biology to Date
February 15 – February 16, 2001
Sequencing machine screen shot
Publication of the Human Genome Sequence
October 5, 2005
The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology logo
The Genetic Code of Avian Flu Virus H5N1 is Deciphered
May 31, 2007
James D. Watson
Watson's Genome is Sequenced
September 6, 2012The Human Genome is Packed with At Least 4,000,000 Gene Switches