4406 entries. 94 themes. Last updated December 26, 2016.

Timeline Outline ViewEra: All Eras   |   Theme: Economics


Circa 4,700 BCE – 4,200 BCE
The remains of the settlement made of two-story houses near the town of Provadia. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Earliest Prehistoric Town in Europe
Circa 3,200 BCE – 2,900 BCE
Cuneiform Writing in Mesopotomia Begins at Uruk in Association with the…
2,031 BCE – 2,024 BCEThe Garsana Archive of Cuneiform Tablets is Returned to Iraq 1,250 BCE – 1,100 BCEAnalysis of Pollen Grains Proves that Drought Caused the Collapse of Civilization in the Soutern Levant Circa 500 BCE
The Roman Census
215 BCE – 210 BCE
One of three excavation pits of the Terracotta Army. (View Larger)
The Terra Cotta Army, An Early Example of Assembly Line Production
10 CE
Emperor Wang Mang.
The First Income Tax
105 CE
Ts'ai Lun
The Invention of Paper in China
303 CE
Piece of the edict in Pergamonmuseum Berlin.
Costs of Professional Writing Measured by the Normal Length of a Line in a Verse of Virgil
330 CE – 1453The Decline of Literacy in the Byzantine Empire Circa 337 CE – 378 CE
Detail of image from De rebus bellicis showing fanciful ox-powered wheel boat.  Please click to view entire image.
De rebus bellicis, Including Images of War Machines
Circa 400 CE – 600At the Beginning of the Dark Ages Production of New Manuscripts Essentially Ceased Circa 550"A Public Popularity for Books Never Existed in Antiquity" 641
Canon 22 of the Council of Nicea II (British Museum, MS Barocci 26, fol. 140b), where the top is written in minuscule and the bottom in unical.(View Larger)
Arab Conquest of Egypt Resulted in Smaller Exports of Papyrus-- A Probable…
Circa 650 – 960
A jiaozi from the Song Dynasty. (View Larger)
Introduction of Paper Money in China
Circa 688 – 716
Folio 5r of Codex Amiatinus, showing Ezra. (View Larger)
The Codex Amiatinus: the Earliest Surviving Complete Bible in the Latin…
700Traversing the Mediterranean in Twenty Days 820 – 830
The Plan of Saint Gall. (View Larger)
The Only Surviving Major Architectural Drawing from the Fall of the Roman…
Song Dynasty Jiaozi, the world's earliest paper money.
The First Printing Encountered by European Travelers
1066 – 1307More than One Million Charters Survive from the Period of Norman Rule in England December 1085 – August 1086
The Domesday Book. (View Larger) /></p></a>  <p>William I of England, better known as <a href=
The Domesday Book, Recording the First English Census
1224 – 1227First Recorded Issue of Paper Money in the Mongol Empire Circa 1250Possibly the First Joint-Stock Company 1275
Edward I, portrayed in the stained glass of Westminster Abbey.
Edward I's Statute of the Jewry
The infamous Edward I. (View Larger)
Edward I Expells the Jews from England
Tabriz, Iran, as seen through Google Earth. (View Larger)
A Clear Record of Early Block Printing in Tabriz
1298 – 1299
Folio 54r from a facsimile of 'Le divisament dou monde,' preserved at the University of Graz, in Germany. (View Larger)
The Lure and Romance of Travel to the East
1319 – 1327The Earliest Use of Paper Money in Japan 1374 – 1375The Relative Costs of the Components of Medieval Manuscripts 1390
A view of Nuremberg--folio 99v/100r of the Nuremberg Chronicles--showing Stromer's paper mill, bordering the city on the bottom right. (View Larger)
Earliest European Document on the Production of Paper
Portrait of Pope Paul II by Cristofano dell'Atissimo (1525-1605).
Printing Decreased the Costs of Books by 80%
September 1469
Portrait of Andrea Navagero Beazzano and Augustine by Raphael, 1516. (Click on image to view larger.)
Johannes de Spira Becomes the First Printer in Venice
1475The Staff and Salaries of a 15th Century Venetian Printing Office 1494Trithemius Favors Vellum over Paper for Long Term Information Storage November 10 – November 20, 1494
Page from Summa de arithmetica geometria, proporzioni et proporzionalita at the Libarary for Humanitities and Social Sciences at the Kobe University. (Click on the image to view the full page opening.)
Pacioli Issues "Summa de arithmetica", the First Great General Work on Mathematics
Circa 1525The Venetian Arsenal Develops the First Large-Scale Production-Line 1589William Lee Invents the Stocking Frame Knitting Machine 1592 – 1593Publication of the Bills of Mortality": the Beginning of the Collection of Medical Statistics 1617Minsheu's "Ductor in Linguas," The First Book Sold by Subscription and the First Book to Include a List of Subscribers 1639 – 2013
Box of Pages from the Great Parchment Book (before rehousing)
"The Great Parchment Book" and Its Digital Restoration After Three Centuries
1662Demography & Vital Statistics 1664Argument for Forest Management 1674The World's Oldest Auction House is Founded April 1688The First American Public Document to Protest Slavery and One of the First Written Public Declarations of Universal Human Rights 1690"Political Arithmetick": Application of Statistics to Economic Theory and Policy 1693The Breslau Tables 1699There Are 150 Paper Mills in England 1700
Title page from De morbis artificium diatriba.
Bernardino Ramazzini Founds Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics
1718 – 1721Lombe's Silk Throwing Mill: The First Factory 1725Abraham de Moivre Formulates the Theory of Annuities 1742Johann Peter Süssmilch Proves the Need for a Healthy and Industrious Population 1746 – 1760Antoine Deparcieux Issues the First "Correct" Life Tables 1747Hannah Glasse's "The art of Cookery", Probably the Most-Widely Read English Cookery Book of the 18th Century 1749 – 1814"Descriptions des Arts et Métiers": Mechanical and Industrial Arts of 18th Century France Circa 1750Printing about 200 Sheets per Hour 1755"The First Treatise on Economics" by Richard Cantillon is Posthumously Published 1759Voltaire Issues "Candide, ou l'Optimism" Anonymously and Secretively 1764James Hargreaves Invents the Spinning Jenny 1769 – 1775Richard Arkwright Invents his Spinning Machine: Mass Production Instigating Disruptive Economic & Social Change in the Industrial Revolution 1770The Earliest Large-Scale Data-Processing Organization 1776Adam Smith's Classic of "Laissez-Faire" 1785John Pendred Issues the Earliest Directory of the Book Trade in England 1785 – 1786William Playfair Founds Statistical Graphics, and Invents the Line Chart and Bar Chart Circa 1785Oliver Evans Builds the First Automated Flour Mill: Origins of the Integrated and Automated Factory May 22, 1787 – 1807Foundation of the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade January 23 – July 14, 1789Bastille Day Occurs December 5, 1791Alexander Hamilton Issues "The Magna Carta of Industrial America" 1793 – 1801de Prony Produces Mathematical Tables Calculated by Hairdressers Unemployed after the French Revolution 1795Gottfried Erich Rosenthal Issues the First Comprehensive Bibliography of Technology 1798Malthus on Population 1798The First Official National Industrial Exposition Occurs in Paris Circa 1800By this Stage in the Industrial Revolution All Phases of Cloth Production Are Performed by Machines 1801 – 1821Joseph-Marie Jacquard's Loom Uses Punched Cards to Store Patterns 1801The First Census of England, Scotland and Wales is Undertaken 1801William Playfair Invents the Pie Chart November 11, 1811 – January 12, 1813The Ludd Riots Occur 1817David Ricardo Explains the Distribution of Wealth, Including How it Applies to the Value of Rare Books December 1, 1819Foundation of the First Business School 1822
Title page of Illustrations and Proofs of the Principle of Population: Including an Examination of the Proposed Remedies of Mr. Malthus, and a Reply to the Objections of Mr. Godwin and Others.
Francis Place Founds the Birth Control Movement
September 27, 1825The First Publically Subscribed Passenger Railroad 1828Discovery of Brownian Motion 1831Writer & Publisher Charles Knight Explains How Mechanized Printing Delivers Information Faster & at Costs Affordable to All 1832 – 1835Babbage's "On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures" Begins Operations Research 1837 – 1840The Penny Post: Perhaps the Greatest Single Stimulus to Written Communication 1841Charles MacKay Issues an Exposition of Financial Bubbles 1845The First Annotated Bibliography of the History of Economics 1846Beginning of the American Conservation Movement February 1848The French Revolution of 1848 in Europe's Year of Revolutions February 21, 1848The Communist Manifesto 1860100,000 Tons of Paper, Only 4% Made by Hand 1860 – 1861The Autograph Manuscript of Mill's "Considerations on Representative Government" July 1, 1862
Text of first page of HR 312 also known as the Revenue Act of 1862.
Origins of the Internal Revenue Service
1865 – 1867 The Role of Women as Typesetters in the French Printing Industry September 14, 1867Marx's "Das Kapital" is Published 1870British Telegraph is Nationalized 1870Requiring Universal Education of Children Between the Ages of 5 and 12 in England and Wales 1874
Circular note, launched in 1874 by Thomas Cook. 
No higher resolution image available at this time.
"Circular Notes", a Precursor of Traveler's Cheques, are Introduced
1874 – 1878Josiah Willard Gibbs Issues The Principia of Thermodynamics 1874Francis Amasa Walker Issues The First National Thematic Atlas 1876 – 1877"Street Life in London": Pioneering Social Documentary Photography as a Form of Photojournalism 1887First Use of the Term "Credit Card" 188977 Windmill Factories Employ 1,100 Workers in the U.S. 1890"How the Other Half Lives": Pioneering Photojournalistic Muckraking 1893 – 1894The First Production Automobiles May 26, 1896Foundation of the Dow Jones Industrial Average August 21, 1897 – 1901The First Automobile Assembly Line 1908 – December 1, 1913Henry Ford Sponsors Improvements in the Automotive Assembly Line 1923The First Suburban Shopping Center Designed for Shoppers Arriving by Automobile 1928Von Neumann Invents the Theory of Games Circa 1930 – 1945Hundreds of Thousands of Wind Turbines Power Farms in the U.S. April 1930 – 1950Statistical Quality Control in Manufacturing is Conceptualized and Introduced by Shewhart and Deming 1936Charlie Chaplin's "Modern Times" 1944Von Neumann & Morgenstern Issue "The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior" February 1950
Early Diners' Club card.
"Diners Club", the First Credit Card
January 17, 1961President Eisenhower Warns About the Increasing Influence of the Military-Industrial Complex 1962Fritz Machlup Introduces the Concept of "The Information Economy" 1975 – 1982Mandelbrot's "The Fractal Geometry of Nature" 1983The Declining Role of Print in Total Information Flow January 1988Australia Issues the First Polymer Banknote ($10) March 1994"Selling Wine without Bottles" January 1995The Bureau of Labor Statistics Begins Publishing on its Website August 9, 1995The Beginning of the "Dot-Com Bubble" December 23, 1998"Where's George?" Begins March 10, 2000
The Netscape logo
Climax of the Dot-Com Bubble
December 14 – December 21, 2000"Weapons of Financial Mass Destruction"? 2004 – 2014How Employment in Bookselling and Newspaper and Magazine Publishing in the U.S. Declined Since the "Great Recession" October 2004
Chris Anderson
"The Long Tail"
July 13, 2006 – September 30, 2010
The Rice University Press logo
Reborn Digital: The First Fully Digital University Press: A 3 Year Experiment in the United States
November 26, 2006
Ailin Graef
"Anshe Chung Becomes First Virtual World Millionaire"
2008 – November 18, 2013The First Virtual Currency Has a Real Value of 7 Billion Dollars September 2008Craiglist Becomes the Leading Classified Advertising Service Worldwide 2009 – 2010The First iPhone and iPad Apps for the Visually Impaired January 6, 2009Apple Eliminates Anticopying Restrictions from iTunes April 28, 2009Kickstarter.com is Launched June 9, 2009"Revenue at Craigslist is Said to Top $100,000,000" as Classified Advertising in Newspapers Declines June 14, 2009Employment in the Field of Simulation May 6, 2010General Statistics on the U.S. Book Publishing Industry December 3, 2010Of the Seventy Online Databases that "Define Our Planet", Many are Known Only to Specialists February 14 – February 16, 2011IBM's Watson Question Answering System Defeats Humans at Jeopardy! March 4, 2011The Impact of Automation on Legal Research March 6, 2011The Impact of Artificial Intelligence and Automation on Jobs May 2011McKinsey Report on the Impact of the Internet on Growth, Jobs, and Prosperity January 23, 2012 – January 13, 2013Technological Unemployment: Are Robots Replacing Workers? January 11, 2013"Information Technology Dividends Outpace All Others" February 28, 2013PBS Digital Studios: Will 3D Printing Change the World? July 5, 2013Amazon Sells More than 25% of New Books in the U.S. August 17, 2013The First Master's Degree Offered through Massive Open Online Courses by a Major University October 2013A Mobile, One-Armed Robot that Costs $35,000 October 10, 2013Use of the Internet by Part-Time Business Owners in 2013 November 7, 2013Retail e-commerce sales expanded 15 percent in the U.S in 2012—seven times as fast as traditional retail. November 11, 2013The U.S. Postal Service Will Deliver Amazon Packages on Sundays December 29, 2013The Growing Economic and Social Impact of Artificial Intelligence April 18, 2014Matthew Gentzkow Receives Clark Medal for Study of Media Through Big Data Sets April 22, 2014The Lely Astronaut A4 Robotic Cow Milking System July 29, 2014Amazon States its Economic Position on the Sale of E-Books in the "Amazon/Hachette Business Interruption" August 10, 2014Media Companies Spin Off Newspapers to Create Stand-Alone "Print Companies"