4406 entries. 94 themes. Last updated December 26, 2016.

Timeline Outline ViewEra: All Eras   |   Theme: Education / Scholarship / Reading / Literacy


Circa 30,000 BCEThe Advantages of Orally Transmitted Traditions Circa 3,100 BCE
A pictographic list of titles and professions in ancient Sumeria (top), with the scribe's signature on the reverse side (bottom.) (View Larger)
The Earliest Autograph Signatures
Circa 3,000 BCE – 1,200 BCE
Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE), the most famous of the early Babylonian kings. (View Larger)
Education in the Bronze Age in the Middle East
Circa 2,500 BCE
The Abu Salbikh Tablet Lost in the Iraq War
Circa 740 BCE
The ancient Greek wine jug bearing the Dipylon inscription.
One of the Two Oldest Records of the Greek Alphabet
Circa 740 BCE – 720 BCE
The Cup of Nestor. (View Larger)
One of the Two Oldest Known Examples of Writing in Greek
Circa 600 BCEAncient Shopping Lists on Ostracons Reveal Spread of Literacy at Fort in Arad, israel Circa 536 BCE
Ezra the Scribe
Ezra Introduces Public Reading of the Torah
Circa 450 BCE – 420 BCEHow Herodotus Used Writing and Messages in his Histories 440 BCE – 435 BCE
One of the earliest surviving images of anyone reading a papyrus roll, preserved in the Louvre. (View Larger)
One of the Earliest Images of Someone Reading a Papyrus Roll
Circa 370 BCESocrates on the Invention of Writing and the Relationship of Writing to Memory 323 BCE – 283 BCE
Euclid's Elements: "The Founding Document of Mathematics"
Circa 300 BCE
The Royal Library of Alexandria: The Largest Collection of Recorded Information…
Circa 280 BCE
Fragments of the Odyssey, most likely copied in Alexandria.
Philology Probably Begins at the Royal Library of Alexandria
Circa 90 BCEThe Earliest Treatise on Mnemonics Circa 70 BCE – 100 CEDetails of the Roman Book Trade 41 BCE
Sling-bolts, or bullets, engraved with a winged lightning-bolt on one side, and the words 'take that' on another. Circa fourth century BCE Athens. (View Larger)
Humorous Inscriptions on Lead Sling-Bolts (Sling Bullets; Slingshot) Reflect…
Circa 50 CE – 250 CE
The Alexamenos Grafitto. (View Larger)
Probably the Earliest Surviving Image of the Crucifixion: A Graffito
Circa 50 CE – 1700Note-Taking Versus "Place Memory" from Antiquity through the Renaissance and Later Circa 75 CE
A fresco of a Pompein couple with stylus, wax tablets, and papyrus scroll, preserved in the Museuo Archeologico Nazionale. (View Larger)
Roman Portraits Celebrating Literacy
79 CE
An inscription depicting a contemporaneous politician. (View Larger)
Over 11,000 Wall Inscriptions Survived from Pompeii
Circa 100 CE
Vindolanda Tablet 309, an inventory of wooden goods dispatched dispatched by and to civilians working for the military. (View Larger, with translation.)
The Oldest Surviving Handwritten Documents in Britain
Circa 150 CECommercial and Private Book Trade in 2nd Century Egypt Circa 150 CEThe Bankes Homer: One of the Best Preserved Papyri of Homer 198 CEThe Diptych Document Format Circa 234 CE – 253 CEOrigen's Hexapla: Made Possible by the Codex Form, and the First Codices to Display Information in Tabular Form Circa 240 CE – 320 CEThe Library of Lactantius, an Early Christian Author 258 CE – 317 CEFoundation of Imperial Nanking University 270 CEThe Porphyrian Tree: The Earliest Metaphorical Tree of Knowledge 318 CE – 323 CEThe Role of Books in the Rule of the Earliest Christian Monasteries Circa 320 CEA Sarcophagus Showing a Greek Physician in His Library 330 CE – 1453The Decline of Literacy in the Byzantine Empire Circa 350 CEThe Most Widely Used Medieval Grammar Circa 350 CEPossibly the World's First University 397 CE – 1470Augustine on Silent Reading Circa 400 CE – 600At the Beginning of the Dark Ages Production of New Manuscripts Essentially Ceased 410 CE – 449 CE
A map of Britannia from A Classical Atlas of Ancient Geography by Alexander G. Findlay. New York: Harper and Brothers 1849. (View Larger)
The Withdrawal of Roman Legions from Britannia Results in the End of Literacy…
Circa 450 CE – 650The Church Assumes Role of Educator and Civil Service for the Tribal Kingdoms Circa 450 CEHesychius of Alexandria's Dictionary Survived in Only One Deeply Corrupt Renaissance Manuscript 450 CE – 1193The First Residential University 476 CE – 1500"A Bibliography of Works on Medieval Communication" Circa 524 – 1300How the Middle Ages Processed and Recycled Roman Culture 529 – 533
Justinian. (Click to view larger.)
The Code of Justinian, The Basis for Civil Law in Western Europe
534The Deterioration of Libraries, Publishing and Educational Institutions in Italy by the Sixth Century 550 – 650
Gundishapur, province of Khuzestan, Iran. (View Larger)
The Most Important Medical Center During 6th and 7th Centuries
Circa 550"A Public Popularity for Books Never Existed in Antiquity" Circa 560
An image from Codex Amiantinus. (Click to view larger.)
The Scriptorium and Library at the Vivarium
Circa 563
Saint Columba (View Larger)
From the Monastery on the Small Island of Iona, the Conversion of Pagan…
St. Augustine of Canterbury. (View Larger)
Augustine of Canterbury Preaches to the Anglo-Saxons
Circa 600
Tablet 3v of the Springmount Bog Tablets. (National Museum. Dublin, 1914: 2) (View Larger)
The Springmount Bog Wax Tablets
Circa 633Excepting the Bible, Probably the Most Widely Circulated Educational Work During the Middle Ages 634
Saint Aidan (View larger)
Foundation of the Monastery on Lindisfarne
704 – 705The Earliest Surviving Letter Known to Have Been Written from One Englishman to Another Circa 715 – 720
(View Larger)
The Earliest Image of a Scribe Using a Writing Table
750Most of the Surviving Greek Literature was Translated into Arabic by 750 Circa 750Evidence of the Decline of Literacy Among the Laity in the Early Middle Ages Circa 750 – 975The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad 762
A modern photograph of a courtyard in the House of Wisdom, also known as the Bait al-Hikma. (View Larger)
Foundation of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad
Raban Maur (left), flanked by Alcuin (middle), dedicates his work to Archbishop Otgar of Mainz (Right), taken from a Carolingian manuscript (ca. 831/40) currently residing in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek Wien. (View Larger)
One of the Finest Libraries North of the Alps: About 100 Books
Circa 780 – 820The Contributions of the Emperor Charlemagne and the Educator Alcuin to the Carolingian Renaissance 799Approximately 1880 Manuscript Codices or Fragments Survive of Texts Written before 800 815 – 835
A page from the Uspensky Gospels. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Dated Manuscript Written in Greek Minuscule
820 – 830
The Plan of Saint Gall. (View Larger)
The Only Surviving Major Architectural Drawing from the Fall of the Roman…
Circa 825The Earliest Surviving Text of Lucretius's De rerum natura Circa 850 – 1050The Text of Tacitus' Annals and Histories Survived in Only Two Manuscripts 859 – May 2015The al-Qarawiyyin Library, the Oldest Working Library in the World, Reopens after Restoration Circa 890The First Surviving Book Written Entirely in English November 895
Folio 94v of the Clarke Plato. (View Larger)
The Oldest Surviving Manuscript of Plato's Tetralogies
932 – 953Printing Not to Make Literature More Accessible Circa 950
Folio 12r of Venetus A. (View Larger)
The Most Famous, and Most Significant Manuscript of the Iliad
Circa 950The Massive Byzantine Encyclopedic Dictionary Circa 950The First Western Medical School Circa 950A Greek Manuscript Owned and Extensively Annotated by Robert Grosseteste Circa 961 – 976
A map of the Caliphate of Cordoba circa 1000CE. (View Larger)
A Vast Library at Cordoba in Al-Andalus
970 – 972Foundation of Al-Azhar University Circa 1040 – 1050
Page from Papias' Elementarium listing words beginning with
The First Truly Recognizable Dictionary
Circa 1075 – 1098
Folio 1r of the manuscript of Liber Pantegni preserved in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Manuscript of the Earliest Western Medical Treatise
Circa 1075 – 1225The VIDI Project: "Manuscript Innovation in the Twelfth-Century Renaissance" 1088
The seal of the University of Bologna. (View Larger)
Foundation of the University of Bologna
Oxford University's coat of arms. (View Larger)
Origins of the University of Oxford
A folio from MS 2085 of the Schoyen Collection, one of the twelve extant manuscripts of the letters of Abelard and Heloise. (View Larger)
Among the Best Known Records of Early Forbidden Romantic Love
Circa 1125 – 1225
Offsite Link
The Universitas Guild: Early Origin of What We Characterize as a University
1134The Oldest University in Spain 1167
A 16th century portrait of King Henry II of England, by an unknown artist.
Henry II Forbids English Students to Study at Paris
Circa 1175 – 1250Simultaneous Appearance in Medieval Europe of the College, the Recursive Argument Method, Translations of Scientific Works from the Arabic, & Translations of Aristotle's Works 1180 – 1575Factors Influencing the Development of the French Language, Literature, and Book Production 1180The First College Founded in Western Europe Circa 1200
Detail of image depicting a monk at work in a medieval scriptorium (Lacroix).  Please click to view entire image.
Beginnings of an Active Book Trade in Europe Outside of Monasteries
Circa 1200 – 1450Knowledge of Greek and Greek Texts During the Middle Ages 1209
The coat of arms belonging to Cambridge University. (View Larger)
Origins of Cambridge University
June 5, 1224Perhaps the Oldest State-Supported University 1228
The Greater Kyz Kala at Merv, presumed to be the residence of a noble or royal personage. (View Larger)
No Fewer than Twelve Libraries Available to the Public in Merv
April 4, 1228Introduction of the Pecia System 1257
Robert de Sorbon, founder of the University of Paris. (View Larger)
Formation of the University of Paris
Hulagu Khan with his wife, Dokuz Kathun. (View Larger)
So Many Books were Thrown into the Tigris River that they Formed a Bridge…
1265 – 1268
(View Larger)
139 Professional Scribes Are Working in Bologna
The Merton College Library, at Oxford. (View Larger)
"The World's Oldest Continuously Functioning Library for University Academics…
Circa 1300Lay Readers and Book Owners by the End of the 14th Century April 2, 1300A Venetian Ordinance on the Production of Eyeglasses 1306Origins of Beijing University Circa 1306The Most Widely Used Medieval Florilegium or Anthology: Cutting Edge Information Technology for the Time 1317Early Persian Appreciation of the Value of Chinese Printing for the Standardization of Correct Texts Circa 1350
A pair of leather spectacles, found, among other artifacts, in 1953 beneath the floorboards of Kloster Wienhausen, near Celle, in Germany. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Spectacles
The first depiction of spectacles in art: a portrait of Cardinal Hugo of Provence at his writing desk, painted by Tommaso de Mondena in fresco in the Basilica San Nicolo in Treviso, Italy. (View Larger)
The Earliest Depiction of Eyeglasses in a Painted Work of Art
A globe in the present day Merton College Library. (View Larger)
Merton College Library Contains Approximately 500 Manuscripts
Circa 1399 – 1416Saint Catherine in her Study with her Revolving Bookstand 1403 – 1408
A page of the Yongle Encyclopedia. (View Larger)
The Yongle Encyclopedia in 11,095 Volumes, Organized Following a Rhyming…
1408The First Dated Example of Poggio's Humanistic Script Circa 1440 – 1475From About 1440 -1470 the Production of Manuscript Books Increased; From 1471 to 1490, with the Increase of Printed Book Production, Manuscript Book Production Declined Circa 1454Possibly the First Printed Edition Donatus's "Ars minor", the Most Widely Used Medieval Grammar 1465
The first page of a manuscript of De oratore by Cicero, written and illuminated in Northern Italy in the 15th century, and preserved in the British Library
Cicero's "De oratore", Perhaps the First Book Printed in Italy
Detail from page of De officiis with Paradoxa Stoicorum.  Click on the image to see the entire page.
The First Three Printed Editions of Classical Texts, all by Cicero
Circa 1465 – 1475
The panel painting by Hans Memling depicting the Annunciation, with Mary reading from a manuscript. (Click on the image to view larger.)
Depiction of Mary Reading from a Manuscript Book by Hans Memling
A 17th century engraving of The Sorbonne, Paris.
Heynlin & Fichet Establish the First Press in France
Circa 1470Three Ways that Printing Changed Manuscript Culture 1472 – 1475The Earliest Printings of Plato in the Fifteenth Century August 1473 – December 1474Scribe Filippo de Strata's Polemic Against Printing January 26, 1475
Section of a page from the Codex Justinianus.
Peter Schöffer Issues the "Codex Justinianus", Probably the First Printed Civil Law Book
1481"Psalterium Graeco-latinum cum Canticis", the Earliest Printing of Any Book of the Bible in Greek May 25, 1482
Detail of page from Euclid's Elements.  Please click to view entire page.
Euclid's Elements, the Most Famous Textbook Ever Published
February 1 – October 25, 1483Printed on Vellum and Illuminated by Girolamo da Cremona, and Others 1484 – 1485The First Edition of Plato's Opera, Printed by the First Press to Employ Women Circa 1485An Early Depiction of a Child Crumpling the Pages of a Book June 12 – December 23, 1493The Nuremberg Chronicle 1495 – 1498The Aldine Aristotle, One of the Most Significant Publishing Ventures of the Fifteenth Century February 1495 – 1496The Aldine Theocritus: Scholarly Compromises in Running a Publishing House Circa 1500 – 1600The Transition from Latin to the Vernacular in the 16th Century Circa 1500The Growth of Literacy from 1100 to 1500 Circa 1500Aldus's "Rules of the Modern Academy" Known From a Single Surviving Copy 1501
 Pope Alexander VI issued a bull granting cesorial powers over book printing to Archbishops and local authorities serving under them. (View Larger)
Pope Alexander VI Confirms & Expands Censorship
1513Marcellus Silber Issues the First Book Printed in the Ancient Ethiopian Language of Ge'ez and the First Book Printed in Rome in Oriental Type 1514Painter Quentin Matsys Uses a Book of Hours as a Prop for Satire October 14, 1522Cuthbert Tunstall Issues the First Book Published in England Devoted Exclusively to Mathematics September 1533Johannes Herwagen Issues the First Printed Edition of the Greek Text of Euclid Circa 1535Bronzino Paints a Portrait of an Elegant Young Man Mishandling a Book January 6, 1536Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza Establishes the First European School of Higher Learning in the Americas May 12, 1543Henry VIII Restricts the Reading of the Bible Circa 1550The "Wide" Distribution of "Popular" Broadsides and Pamphlets by the Mid-16th Century 1556
Engraved portrait of Hernan Cortes by W. Holl and published by Charles Knight.
Brother Juan Diaz Publishes the First Treatise on Mathematics Published in the Western Hemisphere and the First Textbook on Any Subject Besides Religion Printed Outside of Europe
1557Robert Granjon Issues the First Book Printed in Civilité Types 1558
A portrait of Albreccht V, Duke of Bavaria by Hans Mielich, 16th century.
Albert V, Duke of Bavaria, Founds the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
1567Christophe Plantin Publishes the Earliest Description of the Printing Process 1570Lord Mayor of London Henry Billingsley Issues One of the Earliest Pop-Up Books 1588Agostini Ramelli Describes a Renaissance Information Retrieval Device and Other Machines 1609Erasable Paper from 1609 1610Graphic Depiction of Leiden University Library in 1610 1617Minsheu's "Ductor in Linguas," The First Book Sold by Subscription and the First Book to Include a List of Subscribers 1636Foundation of Harvard College, the First Institution of Higher Learning in the U.S. 1640Stephen Daye Issues the First Book Written & Printed in North America, North of Mexico 1650John Dury Writes the First Book on Librarianship in English 1666The First Treatise on Chemistry Written by a Woman June 25, 1678The First Doctoral Degree is Awarded to a Woman 1684 – 1692The First Hieroglyphic Bible for Children 1684 – 1718The First Book Review Journal: an Early Long-Distance Intellectual Community and Social Network 1685 – 1706Locke's Method of Indexing Commonplace Books 1687 – 1690The First Reading Primer Designed for the American Colonies May 13, 1696The First Licensed Woman Printer in North America Was Illiterate 1697The First Country-Wide Printed Union Catalogue of Manuscripts 1725Johann Joseph Fux Describes Baroque Counterpoint 1729Isaac Greenwood Issues the First American Textbook on Mathematics June 18, 1744John Newberry Issues the First Printed Book Specifically for the Amusement of Children: No Copies of the First Edition Survive 1761Astronomer Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande Writes the First Comprehensive Treatise on Papermaking 1765Joseph Priestley Issues the First Biographical Timeline Chart 1769 – 1794The French Book Trade in Enlightenment Europe 1769 – 1770Joseph Priestley Issues the Most Influential Historical Timeline of the Eighteenth Century 1774"Kaitai Shinsho" : The First Book on Western Medicine and Science Published in Japanese 1783 – 1785Noah Webster Reforms the Teaching of English in the United States 1806 – 1828Noah Webster Compiles the First Dictionary of American English December 1, 1819Foundation of the First Business School February 22, 1821Foundation of the Ecole nationale des chartes December 1822The First Indigenous Arabic Press in Egypt 1825 – 1842The English Church Missionary Society Establishes a Press in Malta to Print Books in Arabic & Turkish 1829The Braille System of Printing and Reading for the Blind 1832 – 1833Janos Bolyai Independently Invents Non-Euclidean Geometry 1832 – 1837The First Lithographed Books Printed in Persia are Issued 1832 – 1845Exploiting the New Technology of Mechanized Printing, Charles Knight Publishes "The Penny Magazine," Britain's First Low Priced Mass-Circulation Magazine 1837Pitman Shorthand, & The First "Correspondence Course" October 1, 1843"The News of the World", a Newspaper for the Newly Literate Working Classes, Begins Publication 1844 – 1845Foundation of Microphotography; Landmark in Hematology, Oncology, and Pathology 1848Spencerian Script Begins July 23, 1849Report on Select Committee on Public Libraries 1850 – 1937Incunabula of the Zulu Language, and a Zulu Beadwork Love Letter 1851Amir Kabir Founds the First Modern Institution of Learning in Iran 1857Richard Chenevix Trench Describes the Need for What Would Become the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) May 5 – October 17, 1857"The Art Treasures of Great Britain," Perhaps the Largest Art Exhibition ever Held 1858Queen Victoria Charters the First Distance Learning Program 1870Requiring Universal Education of Children Between the Ages of 5 and 12 in England and Wales June 30 – September 1, 1877The Caxton Quadricentennial Celebration: Probably the Largest Exhibition on the History of Printing Ever Held; Collecting its Publications June 1878Edison Describes Future Uses for his Phonograph 1883The First Carnegie Library 1884The American Historical Association 1887Establishment of the First Library School, the "School of Library Economy" 1894The Palmer Method 1912The First School of Journalism is Founded at Columbia University 1917The Pulitzer Prize is Established by the Will of Joseph Pulitzer October 18 – November 14, 1922The BBC is Founded 1926Virginia Woolf's "How Should One Read a Book?" 1930 – 1931Bob Brown: Visionary of New Reading Machines and Changes in the Process of Reading 1931The First "Talking-Books" 1934Picasso Depicts His Lover Reading at a Table January 26, 1934Bradford's Law 1939Fantasies of an All-Encompassing Archive or "Universal Library" 1952National Educational Television is Founded June 26 – June 29, 1956First International Congress on Cybernetics 1957There are Forty Computers on American University Campuses 1957J. W. Ellison Issues the First Computerized Concordance of the Bible 1959 – 1961One of the First Computer Models of How People Learn July 1959Machines Can Learn from Past Errors 1960PLATO 1: The First Electronic Learning System 1961George Forsythe Coins the Term "Computer Science" 1962Fritz Machlup Introduces the Concept of "The Information Economy" 1964Marshall McLuhan's "The Medium is the Message" 1965 – 1969The TUTOR Programming Language for Education and Games 1967Ted Nelson & Andries van Dam Develop the First Hypertext Editing System 1967Ellis Batten Page Begins Automated Essay Scoring 1968Andries van Dam Develops Probably the First Hypertext System Used in Education 1970 – 1971The Kenback-1, the First Stored-Program "Personal Computer" October 5, 1970PBS is Founded 1972One of the First Touchscreens Appears on the Plato IV System 1973The Plato IV System, Probably the World's First Online Community 1974Raymond Kurzweil Introduces the First Omni-Font Optical Character Recognition System 1976First Print-to-Speech Reading Machine June 1976The English Short Title Catalogue (ESTC) is Conceived 1979The "Mead & Conway Revolution" in VLSI Integrated Circuit Education 1990TED: Technology, Entertainment and Design 1995Probably the First For-Profit Social Networking Site 2000 – 2007Conceiving and Building a Machine-Readable Database to Present Information "Filtered, Selected and Presented According to the Needs of the Individual User" 2001Foundation of the Oxford Internet Institute 2002
HASTAC is Founded
December 1, 2002
Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics logo
ECHO (European Cultural Heritage Online) is Founded
October 23, 2003
Gary Wolf
Amazon Introduces "Search Inside" 120,000 Books
20042,350,000 U.S. Students in Online Learning 2004
Robert (Bob) Stein
The Institute for the Future of the Book
May 12, 2004
An artist's rendition of the Library of Alexandria
The Site of the Original Library of Alexandria is Located
October 2004
The Frankfurt Bookfair logo
The Google Print Project is Announced
Richard Louv
"Last Child in the Woods" : Exploration of Nature Versus Exposure to Media in Childhood
August 25, 2005 – January 11, 2006
A screenshot of the Million Dollar Homepage
The Million Dollar Homepage
September 6, 2005A University Library Intended to Contain Very Few Physical Books January 28, 2006
The iTunes U logo
College-Level Lectures Via Podcasts
July 13, 2006 – September 30, 2010
The Rice University Press logo
Reborn Digital: The First Fully Digital University Press: A 3 Year Experiment in the United States
David Ferrucci
IBM Begins Development of Watson, the First Cognitive Computer
January 2007Goodreads is Founded July 2007
A virtual classroom in Second Life where players can learn new languages, among other studies
Second Life is Used for Teaching Foreign Languages
August 2007
Arun Kumar
The World Wide Telecom Web for Illiterate Populations
September 2007
A player's avatar stands infront of the virtual campus of Coventry University in Second Life
The First Healthcare Course Taught in Second Life
November 5, 2007 – 2008
Anthony Grafton
Anthony Grafton's "Codex in Crisis"
November 19, 2007
The Amazon logo
The Amazon Kindle is Introduced
March 2008Game-Based Learning for Virtual Patients July 27, 2008Toward a World Digital Mathematics Library October 2008 – March 2012Creation of the HathiTrust Digital Library November 18, 2008
Cover of Tango with Cows, Vasily Kamensky.  Please click on image to view larger image.
"Tango with Cows" : A Virtual Exhibition
November 21, 2008"From Book Fluency to Screen Fluency, from Literacy to Visuality" 2009"The Future of Learning Institutions in a Digital Age" 2009"Readability" is Launched May 6, 2009Larger Version of the Amazon Kindle Introduced September 1, 2009The First College Journalism Course Focused on Twitter September 14, 2009Darnton's Case for Books: Past, Present and Future December 17, 2009A French Alternative to Google Books is Formed December 23, 2009The Amazon Kindle is Hacked; eBook Digital Rights Management Cracked January 2010"The Never-Ending Language Learning System" February 2010"Assessing the Future Landscape of Scholarly Communication. . . " February 22, 2010Modifiable eBook Editions of Textbooks March 2010The Sociology of Wikipedians April 5, 2010Probably the First Fully Visually Satisfying Interactive eBook June 2010Social Networking Added to Reading Electronic Books July 2010Flipboard, "Your Personalized, Social Magazine" July 26, 2010The First Traditional Humanities Journal to Try "Open" Peer Review October 19, 2010Columbia University Opens the Tow Center for Digital Journalism December 9, 2010Bestsellers on eBook Readers: Romance Novels December 13, 2010The Digital Public Library of America December 16, 2010An Interactive Pop-Up Children's Book App for the iPhone & iPad 2011Post-Review Process Rather than Pre-Review Process in Publishing? 2011Can an Artificial Intelligence Get into the University of Tokyo? January 15, 2011The Wikipedia Celebrates its Tenth Anniversary January 31, 2011The New York Times Begins its "Recommendations Service" February 14 – February 16, 2011IBM's Watson Question Answering System Defeats Humans at Jeopardy! March 4, 2011The Impact of Automation on Legal Research March 6, 2011The Impact of Artificial Intelligence and Automation on Jobs April 20, 2011Amazon to Launch Library Lending for eBooks on the Kindle Platform June 6, 2011College Textbooks Make a Slower Transition from Print to Digital June 10, 2011Digital Democracy is Not So Democratic July 2011South Korea to Shift All Primary and High School Textbooks to Digital by 2015 August 15, 2011Free Online Artificial Intelligence Course Attracts 58,000 Students August 18, 2011Interactive Reading and Spelling on the iPad August 18, 2011Toward Cognitive Computing Systems September 6, 2011Michael Hart, Father of eBooks & Founder of Project Gutenberg, Dies October 25, 2011"Zero to Eight: Children's Media Use in America" October 28, 2011Room to Read Donates its 10,000,000th Book November 14, 2011The Swedish Twitter University Begins November 20, 2011Digital Books Represent 25% of Sales of Some Categories of Books but Less than 5% of Childrens' Books November 23, 2011Rapid Growth of the Digital Textbook Market in the U.S. January 5, 2012Sales of eBook Readers in 2011 January 19, 2012Apple Introduces iBooks 2, iBooks Author, and iTunes U March 9, 2012After Digitizing Over 20 Million Books Expansion of the Google Books Project Begins to Slow April 23, 2012Using a Densitometer to Measure Usage of Medieval Books of Hours April 30, 2012Microsoft Invests in Barnes & Noble's Nook eBook Reader Division May 2, 2012Harvard & M.I.T. to Offer Free Online Courses May 29, 2012Growing Adoption of the eBook Format in the U. S. September 3, 2012The Book History Online Database, Previously a Free Service, Becomes an Expensive Private Research Source November 20, 2012Coursera Enrolls Nearly Two Million Students from 196 Countries in Online Courses within its First Year January 17, 2013The Youngest Person to Create a Mobil Game App January 22, 2013The Pew Internet Report on Library Services in the Digital Age January 26, 2013Jane Austin and Walter Scott Were the Two Most Influential Novelists of the 19th Century: A Discovery Made Through Digital Humanities Research March 4, 2013Smartphone Interactive Reading Device Will Track Eyes to Scroll Pages April 11, 2013"The Reading Brain in the Digital Age: The Science of Paper versus Screens" April 18, 2013The Digital Public Library of America is Launched July 17, 2013The First Fully Online MIDS Degree Program August 17, 2013The First Master's Degree Offered through Massive Open Online Courses by a Major University September 3, 2013New Paradigm for a Regional Library October 2013Teaching Keyboard Skills in Kindergarten October 27, 2013The Market for Very Young Children's Books Has Grown, Partly in Reaction to eBooks October 28, 2013Zero to Eight: Children's Media Use in America 2013 December 24, 2013"As New Services Track Habits, the E-Books are Reading You" December 29, 2013The Growing Economic and Social Impact of Artificial Intelligence January 4, 2014Trends in Reading, Book Reviewing, Publishing and Writing as of the Beginning of 2014 January 29, 2014"Sensory Fiction": A Kind of Virtual Reality E-Book Reading Experience February 22, 2014Growth of Audiobooks Parallels Growth of eBooks March 17, 2014UC Berkeley is the First American University to Hire a Wikipedian-in-Residence April 2014"Book Traces" a Crowd-Sourced Web Project April 1, 2014Digital Humanities Quarterly to Publish Articles as Sets of Visualizations Rather than Articles in Verbal Form May 16, 2014The First Braille Cell Phone August 16, 2014The Entirely Digital Main Library at Florida Polytechnic University Begins Operation September 8, 2014A New Threat to the Beseiged Libraries and Cultural Heritage of Iraq September 29, 2014"The Hidden Cost of E-Books at University Libraries" October 25, 2014ISIS Closes Mosul University Departments and Bans Text Books December 10, 2014eBooks May Track Reading Habits December 17, 2014Amazon's Research in the Reading Process & its Introduction of the Ability with its E-Readers to Switch Back and Forth Between the Written and Audible Versions of a Book December 11, 2015Based on a Single Example, A. I. Surpasses Human Capabilities in Reading and Copying Written Characters