4406 entries. 94 themes. Last updated December 26, 2016.

Timeline Outline ViewEra: All Eras   |   Theme: Heredity / Molecular Biology / Genomics


Circa 400,000 BCE
The Oldest Almost Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of a Hominin
Circa 128,000 BCE
Svante Pääbo.
The First Complete Neanderthal Genome Sequence
Circa 100,000 BCE
The largest European specimen of a Wooly Mammoth.
Scientists Sequence Woolly Mammoth Genome--the First of an Extinct Animal
Circa 39,000 BCE
Molar found in Denisova Cave of the Altay Mountains in Southern Siberia. (Click on image to view larger.)
The Denisova Hominin, a Third Kind of Human
Circa 36,000 BCE
Svante Pääbo
Neanderthal Genome Reveals Interbreeding with Humans
Circa 1150 – 1250Jewish Bodies Found in Medieval Well in Norwich, England 1744 – 1745
Pierre Louis Maupertuis
Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis' Pioneer Theory of Epigenesis and Biparental Heredity
A portrait of Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck
Lamarck Issues the First Published Statement of Lamarckism
A portrait of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck by Charles Thévenin
Lamarck's Most Extensive Exposition of his Theory of the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
1814Joseph Adams Issues a Pioneering Work on Medical Genetics 1818William Charles Wells Publishes the First Recognizable Statement of the Theory of Natural Selection 1819
William Lawrence
William Lawrence Describes the Natural History of Man
1840Production of the First Protein Crystals 1842
A portrait of Japetus Steenstrup 
Steenstrup's Theory of Alternation of Generations or Metagenesis
1847The Relationship Between Optical Activity, Crystalline Structure and Chemical Composition August 20, 1858
Charles Darwin
Darwin & Wallace Issue the First Printed Exposition of the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
November 24, 1859
The title page of On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin's "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection"
1864Hemoglobin is Named 1866
Augustinian Abbey of St. Thomas in Brno
Mendel's Discovery of the Mendelian Ratios
1869 – 1871
Felix Hoppe Seyler
Johannes Friedrich Miescher Discovers DNA
1878 – 1882Discovery of Mitosis 1883
Wilhelm Roux
Suggesting that the Nucleus Contains the Material Basis of Heredity
1886 – 1901Isolation of Nucleic Acid & Naming its Five Constituent Organic Compounds 1888
Theodor Boveri
Decisive Proof of Chromosomal Individuality
1889 – 1909
Hugo de Vries
Postulating that Inheritance of Specific Traits is Controlled by Particles Called Pangenes
August Weismann
The Weissmann Barrier
William Bateson
Discontinuous Variation as a Source of Evolutionary Change
1894"The Enzyme and Substrate Must Fit Each Other Like a Lock and a Key" 1897
Francis Galton
Galton's "Law of Ancestral Heredity"
1898Prediction of the Polypeptide Nature of the Protein Molecule 1900
Hugo de Vries
Rediscovery and Confirmation of Mendel's Laws Simultaneously by Three Scientists
1900 – 1902
William Bateson
Coining the Term "Genetics"
1901 – 1903
A painting of Hugo de Vries in his retirement, by Thérèse Schwartze
Mutation Theory is Expounded
Theodor Boveri
Proof that Different Chromosomes Perform Different Functions in Development
1902 Р1908The First Proof of Mendelian Heredity in Humans 1903Genetic Variability, Phenotype and Genotype 1903Theorizing that Chromosomes Carry the Hereditary Material 1903DNA is Distinguished from RNA 1908The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 1909The First Large-Scale Investigation of Species Differences at the Molecular Level 1909 Р1911The Theory of Polygenic Inheritance 1910Sex-Linked Inheritance; Demonstration that Genes are Carried on Chromosomes September 10, 1911Genetic Recombination is Proposed 1912Discovery of the Diffraction of X-Rays in Crystals November 1912 РFebruary 1913Discovery of the "Bragg Relation" in Crystallography 1913Using Cross-Over Data to Construct the First Genetic Map 1913Discovery of Nondisjunction July 1913Discovery of X-Ray Crystallography 1915Mendelian Laws are Demonstrated by Observable Events Occurring in Cells 1915Discovery of Bacteriophages: Viruses that Infect Bacteria 1917Coining the Term Bacteriophage 1918Foundation of Biometrical Genetics 1919First Use of the Word Gene 1924"Mathematical Theory of Natural and Artificial Selection" 1927Proof that X-Rays Can Induce Mutations 1928Demonstration that Bacteria Can Transfer Genetic Information Through an Unidentified Transforming Factor 1930R. A. Fisher's "The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection" 1931Wright's Quantitative Theory of the Effects of Natural Selection on Populations 1931"The Inborn Factors in Disease" 1931The First Studies of Proteins by X-Ray Analysis 1933Niels Bohr Asks if Living Processes Could be Described in Terms of Pure Physics and Chemistry 1934The Beginning of Protein Crystallography: Possibly the Beginning of Structural Molecular Biology 1935Timofeeff-Ressovsky Publishes One of the Key Conceptual Papers in the Early History of Molecular Biology 1938Felix Haurowitz Suggests that Hemoglobin is a Molecular Lung 1938Warren Weaver Coins the Term "Molecular Biology" 1939Pauling's "The Nature of the Chemical Bond" 1941 Р1945Fritz Albert Lipmann Discovers the Process by Which Cells Make Available the Energy to Drive Their Manufacturing Processes November 1941The "One Gene- One Enzyme" Hypothesis March 1943 Р1944Schr̦dinger's "What is Life?" "The Program has to Build the Machinery to Execute Itself" 1944Demonstration that DNA is Responsible for Bacterial Transformation 1946Avery, McLeod & McCarty Discover that Bacteria Share Genetic Information Through Bacterial Conjugation July 1946The First Speculation that Amino Acids are Determined by Nucleic Acids 1948Sven Furberg First Proposes a Helical Structure for DNA September 20, 1948Comparing the Functions of Genes to Self-Reproducing Automata 1949Discovery of the Sex Chromatin: Beginning of Cytogenetics June 1949 Р1952"The Key to the Whole Double Helix Story" Before Watson & Crick November 1949The Beginning of the Molecular Approach to Disease 1950"Chargaff's Rules" February 28, 1951Linus Pauling Reports the First Discovery of a Helical Structure for a Protein July 9 РJuly 12, 1951The First Application of an Electronic Computer to Molecular or Structural Biology 1952The Hershey-Chase "Waring Blender Experiment" May 2 РMay 6, 1952Rosalind Franklin's Photo #51 of Crystalline DNA 1953 Р1954The Idea of a Genetic Code April 25, 1953Discovery of The Double Helix May 30, 1953Proposal of a Method of DNA's Method of Replication September 1957Crick's "On Protein Synthesis" 1958 Р1960John Kendrew Reports the First Solution of the Three-Dimensional Molecular Structure of a Protein 1958First Proof of the Semiconservative Replication of DNA 1961Crick & Brenner Propose The Genetic Code 1961Brenner, Jacob & Meselson Demonstrate the Existence of Messenger RNA 1961Jacob & Monod Explain the Basic Process of Regulating Gene Expression in Bacteria 1966Cyrus Levinthal Builds the First System for Interactive Display of Molecular Structures 1968Max Perutz Solves the Molecular Structure of Hemoglobin at High Resolution August 1968Max Perutz Opens Up the Field of Molecular Pathology 1973Cohen & Boyer Demonstrate the First Practical Method for Cloning a Gene 1974The First of the Three Cohen-Boyer Recombinant DNA Cloning Patents is Granted February 1975The Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA April 7, 1976Genentech is Founded 1977Gilbert & Maxam Develop a Technique for Sequencing DNA 1977The Sanger Method of Rapid DNA Sequencing 1982The First Whole Genome Shotgun Sequence November 15, 1984The First Study of Ancient DNA (aDNA) December 1984 РApril 1987Origins of the Human Genome Project 1986The First Semi-Automatic DNA Sequencer 1991Expressed Sequence Tags May 1998Venter Founds Celera Genomics June 26, 2000
The Celera logo
The Most Extensive Computation Undertaken in Biology to Date
August 2000IBM Forms a Life Sciences Division February 15 – February 16, 2001
Sequencing machine screen shot
Publication of the Human Genome Sequence
October 5, 2005
The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology logo
The Genetic Code of Avian Flu Virus H5N1 is Deciphered
May 31, 2007
James D. Watson
Watson's Genome is Sequenced
August 10, 2009The Cost of DeCoding a Human Genome Drops to $50,000 July 2011Construction of the Francis Crick Institute Begins November 30, 2011The Cost of Sequencing a Human Genome Drops to $10,500 January 10, 2012The Cost of Sequencing a Human Genome Drops to $1000 August 16, 2012The First Book Stored in DNA and then Read September 6, 2012The Human Genome is Packed with At Least 4,000,000 Gene Switches June 13, 2013The U.S. Supreme Court Rules that Genes Cannot be Patented November 24, 2013A Genetic Link to Skin Cancer is Found by Data Mining of Patient Records