4406 entries. 94 themes. Last updated December 26, 2016.

Timeline Outline ViewEra: All Eras   |   Theme: Indexing & Searching Information


Circa 250 BCE
An edition of the Erya.(View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Monolingual Dictionary
Circa 200 BCE
A digital recreation of the Library of Alexandria.
The Origins of Bibliography
Circa 190 CE – 1905Otlet and and La Fontaine Develop the Universal Decimal Classification 192 CEGrief at the Loss of a Personal Library: Rediscovery of a Long Lost Treatise by Galen on Books and Libraries Circa 280 CE – 340 CE
A portrait of Eusebius of Caesarea. (View Larger)
One of the Earliest, Most Widely-Used Cross-Indexing Systems
Circa 380 CEJerome's Chronicon Circa 800
The Book of Kells.
The Book of Kells
Circa 950The Massive Byzantine Encyclopedic Dictionary 988 – 990The Earliest Universal Bibliography Circa 1190 – 1290The Emergence of Concordances and Subject Indexes Circa 1230 – 1300Finding Devices Developed During This Time Are Perhaps the Most Significant in the History of the Book Circa 1250The First Alphabetical Subject Indexes Circa 1270
Humbert de Romans, Dominican scholar who promulgated the notion of arranging books by subject matter.
The Arrangement and Cataloguing of Books
1290Organization of the Sorbonne Library, and the Way it Was Physically Arranged 1305
A portrait of Ramon Llull. (View Larger)
Logical Machines for the Production of Knowledge
Circa 1306The Most Widely Used Medieval Florilegium or Anthology: Cutting Edge Information Technology for the Time Circa 1320Medieval Union Catalogue of Manuscripts 1338The Second Catalogue of the Library of the Sorbonne Circa 1350Henry of Kirkestede Compiles a Medieval Union Catalogue of Manuscripts Naming 694 Authors Circa 1375
Folio 1v of Omne Bonum upon which is drawn the four scenes of creation: God creating fish; God creating animals; the Creation of Adam; the Creation of Eve. (View Larger)
The First Encyclopedia Arranged in Alphabetical Order
1448The First Concordance of the Hebrew Bible 1470 – 1474The First Printed Concordance of the Bible 1470The First Printed Books with Indices 1502Ambrosio Calepino Issues the First Modern Dictionary & the Most Successful & Widely Reprinted Reference Work of the Early Modern Period June 1543
 The title page of Andreas Versalius' 'De humani corporis fabrica libri septem,' published in 1543, was a revolutionary work of unmatched scientific and artistic precision.  (View Larger)
Andreas Vesalius Produces a Unprecedented Blend of Scientific Exposition,…
1545 – 1555
 In 1545, Swiss zoologist and naturalist Conrad Gessner publishes the first 'universal bibliography,' cataloging about 12,000 titles in an attempt to control the 'labyrinth' of books and information which had arrisen since the invention of printing.  (View Larger)
Conrad Gessner Issues the First Universal Bibliography Since the Invention…
1548 – 1549Conrad Gessner Issues the First General Subject Index 1559The Sacred Congregation of the Inquisition Begins Publication of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum 1588Agostini Ramelli Describes a Renaissance Information Retrieval Device and Other Machines 1595Andrew Maunsell Issues the First "Books in Print" 1620 – 1640
The Village Lawyer by Pieter Breughel the Younger.
Depiction of Record Keeping by Pieter Breughel the Younger
1685 – 1706Locke's Method of Indexing Commonplace Books 1697The First Country-Wide Printed Union Catalogue of Manuscripts 1699A Universal Bibliography, but Only for "A and B" 1738Cruden's Concordance, Possibly the Largest Task of Compilation Ever Undertaken by One Man 1739Bernard de Montfaucon Issues the First Continent-Wide Union Catalogue of Manuscripts 1751 – 1780Diderot & d'Alembert's Encyclopédie, the Central Enterprise of the French Enlightenment 1753Linnaeus Develops Binomial Nomenclature for Plants 1755Diderot on Information Overload, and the Encyclopedia as a Means of Organizing and Enhancing Associations in Knowledge 1758Linnaeus Introduces Binomial Nomenclature for Animals December 1768 – 1771Encyclopaedia Britannica Begins 1773 – 1782The Siku Quanshu: Probably the Most Ambitious Editorial Enterprise before the Wikipedia 1782 – 1832An Encyclopedia in 206 Thick Volumes but No Comprehensive Index! February 9, 1784 – 1805Mozart's Autograph Catalogue of His Own Compositions, and its First Printed Editions 1791The First National Code of Descriptive Cataloging--Early Use of Cards in Cataloging Books 1830 – 1853The First Attempt Since that of Montfaucon (1739) to Publish a Union Catalogue of Manuscripts in European Libraries 1841Panizzi's 91 Rules for Standardizing the Cataloguing of Books 1847 – 1965Aspects of Concordance Production Before and During the Early Years of Computerization 1849 – 1853The First Index to Periodical LIterature 1852Charles Jewett Proposes a National Union Catalogue April 29, 1852Roget's Thesaurus is First Published 50 Years After its Composition 1856Andrea Crestadoro Describes Keyword in Context Indexing 1862Ludwig Ritter von Köchel Issues the Köchel-Verzeichnis of Mozart's Works 1875Shepardizing: A Legal Citation System 1876 – 1885Librarian Melvil Dewey Invents Dewey Decimal Classification 1876 – 1961The First Truly Comprehensive Subject Index of the Published Literature of Any Science 1876The Last Library Cataloguing Code Written by One Person 1877Dewey Urges Standardization of Library Catalogue Cards 1879The First Extensively Used Scientific Method of Criminal Identification 1879Index Medicus Begins October 8, 1880Fingerprints as a System of Identification 1881 – 1905The First Complete Catalogue of the British Museum Library Following Panizzi's Rules 1886The First Subject Index to the Library of the British Museum 1892Finger Prints as a Means of Identification 1895An Analog Search Engine to Organize All the World's Knowledge May 26, 1896Foundation of the Dow Jones Industrial Average 1897The Library of Congress Classification 1898The Library of Congress Establishes Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) February 1898The Cumulative Book Index 1901The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature 1901LC Cards June 11, 1911 – 1913"Die Brucke" and its Goals for a World Information Clearing House 1924 – 1933S. R. Ranganathan Develops Colon Classification (CC), the First Faceted Classification 1929 – 1953Henry E. Bliss Develops the Bliss Bibliographic Classification 1930 – June 1949The Contributions of Vannevar Bush to Analog Computing, Information Retrieval, and the Concept of Hypertext December 29, 1931Emanuel Goldberg Invents the First Successful Electronic Document Retrieval Device January 26, 1934Bradford's Law November 20, 1936 – 1938H. G. Wells and the "World Brain" 1942 – 1953Book-Form Publication of the Library of Congress Catalogue Begins: 167 Volumes Plus 42 Volumes of Supplement December 1947Origins of NLM's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) 1949 – 1951Roberto Busa & IBM Adapt Punched Card Tabulating to Sort Words in a Literary Text: The Origins of Humanities Computing April 1949 – January 1953One of the Earliest Attempts at Automating Information Retrieval 1950"High-Speed Computing Devices," the First Textbook on How to Build an Electronic Computer 1950Coining the Expression, Information Retrieval 1950Schmieder's Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis 1951The Coordinate and Uniterm Indexing Systems 1951Information Retrieval vs. Information Warehousing 1951The "DOKEN" (Documentary Engine): a Hypothetical Machine to Search the World's Literature June 24 – June 27, 1952Applying Computer Methods to Library Cataloguing and Research 1954Early Library Information Retrieval System 1954 – 1960Probably the First Widely-Accepted Controlled Vocabulary 1955Machine Methods for Information Searching July 15, 1955The Foundation of Citation Analysis 1957Mechanized Encoding of Library Information 1957J. W. Ellison Issues the First Computerized Concordance of the Bible 1958Hans Peter Lund of IBM Develops an Automatic Document Indexing Program November 1958Keyword in Context (KWIC) Indexing 1959 – 1972The Most Voluminous Printed Catalogue of a Single Library 1959Auto-Encoding of Documents for Information Retrieval 1959Stephen Parrish's Concordance of the Poems of Matthew Arnold: the First Computerized Literary Concordance 1960John Horty Pioneers Computer-Assisted Legal Research 1960The National Library of Medicine Introduces Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) 1962Inforonics Develops One of the First Data Publishing and Retrieval Systems 1963Feigenbaum & Feldman Issue "Computers and Thought," the First Anthology on Artificial Intelligence October 6, 1963Probably the First Book Typeset by Computer 1964The First Computerized Encyclopedia 1964Science Citation Index January 1964MEDLARS: The First Large Scale Computer-Based Retrospective Search Service Available to the General Public September 9 – September 11, 1964Arader, Parrish & Bessinger Organize the First Humanities Computing or Digital Humanities Conference 1965Licklider Issues "Libraries of the Future" 1965 – 1968Henriette Avram Develops the MARC Cataloguing Standard 1966Data Corporation Develops a Computer-Assisted Full-Text Inventory System 1966Roger K. Summit's DIALOG Information Retrieval System is Operational at Lockheed Aircraft 1967Data Corporation Develops a Full-Text Interactive Search Service 1967The Museum Computer Network is Founded in New York July 5, 1967Frederick G. Kilgour Begins Development of OCLC 1968 – 1981NUC: The Largest Printed Bibliography, Complete in 754 Folio Volumes 1968Stewart Brand Issues "The Whole Earth Catalog": Google and Blogging before the Internet April 1968The First U.S. Conference on Museum Computing Occurs at the Metropolitan Museum of Art November 1968Philip Bagley Coins the Term "Metadata" 1969 – 1984Derek Austin Develops the PRECIS Preserved Context Index System June 1970Edgar Codd Publishes the Definitive Model for Relational Database Management Systems 1971George Laurer of IBM Develops the Universal Product Code August 26, 1971Alden Library at Ohio University Becomes the First Library to do Online Cataloguing October 1971Medline is Operational 1973The Lexis Online Information Service is Introduced 1973Discovery of Citation Mapping 1974SEQUEL (SQL) is Developed 1974"A Sweeping and Controversial Program" of Combined Library Operations 1974 – 1980Publication of Roberto Busa's Index Thomisticus: Forty Years of Data Processing June 1976The English Short Title Catalogue (ESTC) is Conceived 1977Lawrence Ellison Founds Software Development Laboratories 1978A Printed Book Entitled Toward Paperless Information Systems 1978 – 1980dBase II, the First Best-Selling Database Program for the PC 1980Nexis is Introduced 1982IBM DB2 is Introduced 1983Oracle Corporation 1983 – 1989Keyboarding over 350,000,000 Characters 1985The Perseus Digital Library Project at Tufts University Begins 1985Probably the First Electronic Encyclopedia 1987The First Digital Image Database of Cultural Materials 1988OCLC Acquires the Publisher of the Dewey Classification System 1988International Standard for Computer-to-Computer Information Retrieval 1989Ingetraut Dahlberg Founds the International Society for Knowledge Organization 1990The First "Search Engine" but Not a "Web Search Engine" 1991The WAIS System for Searching Text is Introduced September 1991The Gopher Protocol 1993The Electronic Dewey 1993First Library of Digital Images on the Internet 1993 – 1997"The First Successful Online Bookseller Service" 1993Development of Neural Networks June 1993The First Web Search Engine? November 30, 1993The First Web Search Engine? 1994World Wide Web Worm 1994 – 1996Google Begins with a Search Engine Called "BackRub" 1994The Kansas Event Data System (KEDS): A System for the Machine Coding of International Event Data Based on Pattern Recognition April 1994 – January 18, 1995Yahoo! is Founded April 20, 1994The First Full Text Web Search Engine September 1, 1994The NSF Digital Libraries Initiative: The Origins of Google 1995"Butterfly, an Information Visualizer" December 15, 1995 – July 8, 2013Altavista is Launched 1996The IBM DB2 Universal Database 1996LexisNexis Exceeds One Billion Documents April 1996Searchenginewatch.com Begins November 1997
Logo of digital scriptorium page on Bancroft Library website.
Digital Scriptorium is Founded
1998W3C Releases XML 1998The Last Printed Edition of Beilstein is Published 1998Using Neural Networks for Word Sense Disambiguation January 29, 1998PageRank is Published on Paper February 14, 1998The Bibliometrics of Science Circa September – December 1998MSN Search is Launched September 7, 1998Google is Founded December 23, 1998"Where's George?" Begins 1999Early English Books Online 1999NewspaperARCHIVE.com 1999Berners-Lee's Conception of the Semantic Web 2000The Size of the Internet in 2000 2000 – 2007Conceiving and Building a Machine-Readable Database to Present Information "Filtered, Selected and Presented According to the Needs of the Individual User" 2000Conflict and Mediation Event Observations (CAMEO) January 2000
The Pandora logo
Pandora Radio is Founded, Based on the "Music Genome Project"
October 23, 2000
Google AdWords logo
Google Launches AdWords
January 15, 2001
The Wikipedia logo
The Wikipedia Begins
February 21, 2001
Deja.com logo after 1999
Google Acquires Deja.com
August 2001
Michael K. Bergman
Beneath the Surface of the Ocean of Data: "The Deep Web"
2002Origin of the Google Books Project 2003The First Attempt to "Establish the Geneology of the Computer as an Expressive Medium" in a Single Volume March 2003Latent Dirichlet Allocation October 23, 2003
Gary Wolf
Amazon Introduces "Search Inside" 120,000 Books
The OCLC logo
OCLC Serves More than 50,000 Libraries, Contains 56 Million Records
March 2004The National Digital Newspaper Program May 1, 2004
John Shaw Billings
The Index-Catalogue Goes Online
October 2004
The Frankfurt Bookfair logo
The Google Print Project is Announced
October 2004 – 2005Google Maps Begins 2005
The original Kosmix.com search engine homepage
An image of earth using the Google Earth program
Google Earth is Launched
October 8, 2005
Google CEO Eric Schmidt
It Could Take 300 Years to Index All the World's Information
February 8, 2006
The Zillow.com logo
Zillow.com is Launched
February 9, 2006
Professor Alan Smeaton of DCU, who worked on the Google funded research project
Making Handwritten Manuscripts Searchable
March 2006
A screenshot of the ArchiveGrid homepage
Access to Nearly One Million Archive Collection Descriptions
March 17, 2006
Karen Calhoun
The Changing Nature of the Catalogue. . . .
April 3, 2006A Critical Review at the Library of Congress November 6, 2006
Tom Phillips, head of print operations at Google
Google's AdWords to Place Ads in Print Newspapers
November 6, 2006
Youtube co-founders Chad Hurley and Steve Chen
Google Buys YouTube
November 20, 2006
Terry T. Semel, left, the Chief of Yahoo at the time. Dean Singleton, right, the chief of MediaNews.
Newspaper Advertising in Partnership with Yahoo
May 25, 2007 – May 12, 2008
Google Street View image of St Johns Street in Manchester UK showing 8 different possible views
Google Introduces Street View in Google Maps
September 27, 2007
The National Archives in London
DROID, an Archives Analysis and Identification Tool
2008ImageNet, an Image Database and Ontology July 2008Over One Trillion Unique URLs Indexed October 24, 2008Old Wine in New Bottles? November 11, 2008Analysis of Web Search Queries Track the Spread of Flu Faster than Traditional Surveillance Methods November 21, 2008"From Book Fluency to Screen Fluency, from Literacy to Visuality" March 11, 2009A Higher Resolution Map of Knowledge Than Can be Produced from Citation Analysis May 16, 2009Wolfram/Alpha is Launched September 2, 2009An Algorithm to Decipher Ancient Texts October 2009The First Historical Thesaurus in Any Language October 3, 2009Google CEO Eric Schmidt On Newspapers & Journalism October 9, 2009" A Library to Last Forever" ?? October 19, 2009Google Represents 6% of All Internet Traffic December 2009 – January 12, 2010Google's Computers in China Come Under Attack, Initiating a Review of the Company's Operations in China December 2009Google Announces Real-Time Search: "News at it Happens" December 8, 2009The Google Living Stories Project Begins December 8, 2009Google Introduces Google Goggles December 17, 2009A French Alternative to Google Books is Formed March 22, 2010Google Pulls its Search Engine Out of Mainland China April 14, 2010Google Announces "Replay" for Twitter April 30, 2010Using the Twitter Archive for Historical Research May 6, 2010Google Introduces a Translation Feature for Google Goggles August 4, 2010"Every Two Days We Create as Much Information as We Did up to 2003" September 8, 2010Google Introduces "Google Instant" October 2010NCBI Introduces Images, a Database of More than 2.5 Million Images in Biomedical Literature October 14, 2010 – April 2013Google Books Scanned More than 15 Million Books in 6 Years and More than 30 Million in 9 Years November 9, 2010Towards a New Digital Legal Information Environment November 30, 2010Google Earth 6: Enhanced 3D, 3D Trees, Enhanced Historical Imagery December 2, 2010The Google Earth Engine December 3, 2010Of the Seventy Online Databases that "Define Our Planet", Many are Known Only to Specialists December 16, 2010The Cultural Observatory at Harvard Introduces Culturomics December 16, 20103D Maps for Android Mobil Devices December 29, 2010Facebook is the Most Searched for and Most Visited Website in America 2011Google's Track of its Own Development February 10, 2011Worldwide Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information March 4, 2011The Impact of Automation on Legal Research April 18, 2011Walmart Buys Kosmix.com, Forming @WalmartLabs July 14, 2011How Search Engines Have Become a Primary Form of External or Transactive Memory August 15, 2011 – January 2014Google Acquires Smart-Phone Maker Motorola Mobility; Sells its Hardware Division in January 2014 December 2011The First Widely Accepted Index of the Talmud January 10, 2012Transforming Google into a Search Engine that Understands Not Only Content but People and Relationships March 14, 2012The Encyclopedia Britannica Ends Print Publication May 16, 2012Google Introduces the Knowledge Graph October 29, 2012$2.6 Billion Spent on Ads on Phones and Tablets in 2012 November 2012A Max Planck Institute Program for Historicizing Big Data November 2012A Natural History of Data November 4, 2012Google Has 67% of the U.S. Search Market and Collects 75% of U.S. Search Ad Dollars June 2013The NSA Mines Metadata Rather than the Content of Telecommunication December 4, 2013Introduction of "Arches": an Open-source, Web-based, Geospatial Information System for Cultural Heritage Inventory and Management February 20, 2014Publishing the Wikipedia in 1000 Physical Volumes?? May 29, 2014The GDELT Project: The Largest Open-Access Database on Worldwide News Media August 29, 2014Indexing and Sharing 2.6 Million Images from eBooks in the Internet Archive November 17, 2014Google Develops A Neural Image Caption Generator to Translate Images into Words