4406 entries. 94 themes. Last updated December 26, 2016.

Timeline Outline ViewEra: All Eras   |   Theme: Memory / Mnemonics / Data Storage


Circa 1,500 BCE – 1912How the Inca Quipu System of Mathematical Record-Keeping Worked Circa 370 BCESocrates on the Invention of Writing and the Relationship of Writing to Memory Circa 369 BCEPlato Compares Human Memory to Wax Tablets Circa 300 BCE
The Royal Library of Alexandria: The Largest Collection of Recorded Information…
Circa 90 BCEThe Earliest Treatise on Mnemonics Circa 50 CE – 1700Note-Taking Versus "Place Memory" from Antiquity through the Renaissance and Later Circa 150 CE – 450 CE
Several of the leather-bound codices of the Nag Hammadi Library. (View Larger)
The Form of the Manuscript Book Gradually Shifts from the Roll to the Codex
Circa 180 CE"Attic Nights" : Lack of Arrangement Makes its Own Kind of Arrangement 725
A portrait of the Venerable Bede, by John Doyle Penrose, c. 1902.
Finger Reckoning and Computus in the Eighth Century
Circa 1420
Folio 2r of Bellicorum instrumentorum liber, showing an 'Oriental siege machine.' (View Larger)
One of the Earliest Surviving Italian Manuscripts on Technology and War…
May 9, 1477
First page of of the first, unillustrated edition of De viribus herbarum carmen. (Click on the image to view the full page.)
Macer Floridus's "De viribus herbarum carmen", the First Printed Herbal
1494Trithemius Favors Vellum over Paper for Long Term Information Storage 1609Erasable Paper from 1609 1620 – 1640
The Village Lawyer by Pieter Breughel the Younger.
Depiction of Record Keeping by Pieter Breughel the Younger
1685 – 1706Locke's Method of Indexing Commonplace Books 1784 – 1785"Paper Architect" Etienne-Louis BoullĂ©e Envisages In One Gigantic Reading Room the Entire "Memory of the World" Circa 1800Maillardet's Automaton 1801 – 1821Joseph-Marie Jacquard's Loom Uses Punched Cards to Store Patterns September 1832Korsakov is Probably the First to Use Punched Cards for Information Processing and Storage 1847The First Scientific Instrument to Record Scientific Information in Real Time Circa 1850Flong as an "Immutable Form of Information Capture" September 19, 1870 – January 28, 1871The Pigeon Post into Paris: The First Important Application of Microfilm 1885"Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology" June 21, 1918Eccles & Jordan Invent the Flip-Flop Circuit, the Basis for Electronic Memory 1930 – June 1949The Contributions of Vannevar Bush to Analog Computing, Information Retrieval, and the Concept of Hypertext May 25, 1940Sealing of the Crypt of Civilization June 1941 – October 2, 1955Key Events in the Development of the First General Purpose Electronic Digital Computer, the ENIAC September 30, 1945The First Engineering Report on the EDVAC 1947Booth & Britten Write the Earliest Program Leading toward Machine Translation 1947Dennis Gabor Invents Holography April 24, 1947 – November 4, 1952Key Events in the Development of the UNIVAC, the First Electronic Computer Widely Sold in the United States October 1947 – September 1950Innovative Aspects of the BINAC, the First Electronic Computer Ever Sold 1948Norbert Wiener Issues "Cybernetics", the First Widely Distributed Book on Electronic Computing 1948Andrew D. Booth Invents the First Magnetic Drum Memory June 21, 1948The Williams Tube and the "Manchester Baby," the First Operational Stored-Program Computer Runs its First Program 1953The IBM 650: The First Mass-Produced Computer March 27, 1953IBM Installs its First Stored Program Electronic Computer, the 701, but They Don't Call it a Computer 1955Magnetic Core Storage Units April 15, 1955 – 1956"The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two. . . " July 1956Werner Buchholz Coins the Term "Byte" September 4 – September 13, 1956The First Commercial Computer Designed to Use a Moving Head Hard Drive for Secondary Storage September 14, 1956The First Computer with a Hard Drive: $10,000 per Megabyte 1958Von Neumann's "The Computer and the Brain" 1964 – March 24, 1970IBM Receives the Fundamental Patent for Disk Drives 1965Licklider Issues "Libraries of the Future" April 1965Maurice Wilkes Introduces Memory Caching 1966Semi-Conductor Memory Replaces Magnetic-Core Memory 1966Robert H. Dennard of IBM Invents DRAM July 18, 1968 – 1985Landmark Products from the Early Years of Intel Corporation 1969Willard Boyle & George Smith Develop the CCD, a Sensor for Recording Images 1969 – December 15, 1978David Gregg & James Russell Invent the Laserdisc July 21, 1969A Problem with the Apollo 11 Guidance Computer Nearly Prevents the First Moon Walk June 30, 1970The IBM System/370 Uses Semiconductor Memory 1971IBM Introduces the Floppy Disk 1976 – 1983The Compact Disc (CD) is Developed August 20, 1977 – September 5, Launching "Messages in a Bottle" into the Cosmic Ocean 1978A Printed Book Entitled Toward Paperless Information Systems Circa 1980Fujio Masuoka Invents Flash Memory November 1982The First Scanner? 1983Possibly the Earliest Electronic Publication on Art 1983 – May 1984The First Commercially Available IBM PC Compatible ROM Bios 1985The CD-ROM is Introduced 1987The First Digital Image Database of Cultural Materials June 1995"Johnny Mnemonic": The First Film to Portray a Graphic Vision of Cyberspace September 1996 – March 1997DVDs are Introduced 1997How Much Information is There? 2000
Peter Lyman
In the Year 2000, "How Much Information?"
June 29, 2000
A technician monitors IBM's ASCI White Supercomputer in 2000
The ASCI White Supercomputer Becomes Operational
High Density Rosetta Archival Preservation Technology
2002One Way to Determine the Beginning of the Digital Age November 1, 2003
Umberto Eco
"Vegetal and Mineral Memory: The Future of Books"
October 14, 2004
A microscopic picture of a cluster of neurons in the brain
Cortical Rewiring and Information Storage
2006Data Curation as a Profession May 14, 2006
Kevin Kelly
"The entire works of humankind, from the beginning of recorded history, in all languages" would amount to 50 petabytes of data.
January 4, 2007
The Deskstar 7k1000, the first 1-terabyte hard disk drive sold by Hitachi Global Storage Technologies
The First One Terabyte Hard Disk Drive
February 27, 2007
The Keio University crest
Data-Storing Bacteria Could Last Thousands of Years
March 10, 2007
Bookshelves inside the Library of Congress
It Could Take 1800 Years to Convert the Paper Records . . . .
April 1, 2009"Computers vs. Brains" June 4, 2009Costs of Managed Archiving versus Passive Archiving of Data January 2010Biological Journals to Require Data-Archiving April 20, 2010"The Data-Driven Life" 2011Scanning Books in Libraries Instead of Making Photocopies February 10, 2011Worldwide Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information May 16, 2011The First Large Robotized Library June 6, 2011"Physical Archiving is Still an Important Function in the Digital Era."The Internet Archive Builds an Archive of Physical Books June 30, 2011IBM Announces Phase-Change Memory July 14, 2011How Search Engines Have Become a Primary Form of External or Transactive Memory November 30, 2011The Cost of Sequencing a Human Genome Drops to $10,500 January 13, 2012The Smallest Magnetic Data Storage Unit Uses Just 12 Atoms per Bit April 30, 2012What Makes Spoken Lines in Movies Memorable? August 16, 2012The First Book Stored in DNA and then Read November 19, 2012Memcomputing Outlined March 7, 2013The Historic Vatican Library to be Digitized in 2.8 Petabytes April 30, 2013
Screen shot from world's smallest movie:
The World's Smallest Movie
June 2013The NSA Mines Metadata Rather than the Content of Telecommunication August 2013Crossbar Memory can Store a Terabyte on a Postage-Stamp Sized Chip