4406 entries. 94 themes. Last updated December 26, 2016.

Timeline Outline ViewEra: All Eras   |   Theme: Social / Political


Circa 1,500,000 BCE – 790,000 BCE
Scorched stone tools excavated in 2004 at Gesher Benot-Ya-aqov, in Israel, provide evidence for the existence of early hearths. Photograph by Chip Clark, Smithsonian Institution. (View Larger)
The Earliest Hearths
Circa 100,000 BCE
Pieces of ochre excavated in Qafzeh, Israel, suggesting intentional burial. Photocredit: James Di Loreto, & Donald H. Hurlbert, Smithsonian Institution. (View Larger)
The Oldest Intentional Burial
Circa 75,000 BCE
Sediments containing ancient mattresses at Sibudu Caves.  Photo by Lyn Wadley. (Click on image to view larger.)
At Sibudu Cave, the Oldest Known Early Bedding and Use of Medicinal Plants
Circa 3,200 BCEThe Oldest-Known List of Titles and Occupations Circa 2,600 BCE – 2,500 BCEThe Wooden Panels of Hesy-Ra: Government Official, Physician, and Scribe 2,031 BCE – 2,024 BCEThe Garsana Archive of Cuneiform Tablets is Returned to Iraq Circa 1,360 BCE – 1,330 BCE
ME E29785 of the British Museum: A letter from Burnaburiash, a king of the Kassite dynasty of Babylonia, to Amenhotep IV. The tablet is one of the Amarna Letters. (View Larger)
Archive of Egyptian Diplomatic Correspondence Written in the Diplomatic…
1,209 BCE – 1,208 BCE
The Merneptah Stele (View Larger)
The Only Ancient Egyptian Document that Mentions Israel
689 BCE – 691 BCE
The Taylor Prism, ME 91032 of the British Library. (View Larger)
The Taylor Prism and the Sennacherib Prism
668 BCE – 627 BCE
Knowledge as Power: King Ashurbanipal Forms the Earliest Systematically…
Circa 650 BCE – 600 BCEThe Constitutional Law of Dreros: The Earliest Surviving Greek Law on Stone 586 BCE
Destruction of Solomon's Temple
539 BCE
The front side of the Cyrus Cylinder. (View Larger)
The Cyrus Cylinder, the Earliest Known Document in the History of Religious…
522 BCE – 486 BCE
The Behistun Inscription. (View Larger)
The "Rosetta Stone" of Cuneiform Script
509 BCE – 457 BCEThe Persepolis Administrative Archives Circa 450 BCEThe Elephantine Papyri: One of the Most Ancient Collections of Jewish Manuscripts Circa 250 BCEThe Foundation of Paris 215 BCE – 210 BCE
One of three excavation pits of the Terracotta Army. (View Larger)
The Terra Cotta Army, An Early Example of Assembly Line Production
213 BCE – 206 BCE
Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang.
Destroying Most Records of the Past Along with 460, or More, Scholars
58 BCE – 51 BCECaesar's Gallic Wars 46 BCE
Julius Caesar Introduces a Calendar and Plans a Great Library
43 BCEFoundation of Lugdunum (Lyon) 10 CE
Emperor Wang Mang.
The First Income Tax
Circa 15 CERes gestae divi Augusti: The First Person Record of the Life and Accomplishments of the First Roman Emperor December 69 CE – January 70 CEThe Lex de imperio Vespasiani is Cast as a Huge Bronze Plaque Circa 70 CE – 110 CE
The four authors.
Composition of the Four Gospels
132 CE – 135 CEIn the "Cave of Letters" Discovery of Papyri Recording Israel's Second Century Revolt Against Roman Rule 249 CE – 251 CEThe Persecution, Imprisonment and Torture of Origen 249 CE – 251 CECertificates of Conformation to Pagan Religious Practice February 28, 256 CEWarrant for the Arrest of a Christian: One of the Earliest Surviving Recorded Uses of the Word Christian February 24, 303 CE – 311 CE
The Diocletianic Persecution of Christians
October 28, 312 CE – 315 CEThe Emperor Constantine Converts to Christianity 313 CE
The Edict of Milan Proclaims "Religious Toleration"
324 CE – May 11, 330 CE
Constantinus II.
The Foundation of Constantinople
September 18, 324 CEConstantine Becomes Emperor of the Entire Roman Empire Circa 337 CE – 378 CE
Detail of image from De rebus bellicis showing fanciful ox-powered wheel boat.  Please click to view entire image.
De rebus bellicis, Including Images of War Machines
Circa 357 CE – 1453The Imperial Library of Constantinople, About Which Very Little is Known February 27, 380 CEThe Edict of Thessalonica makes Nicene Christianity the Official State Religion of the Roman Empire 393 CE
A coin featuring the profile of Emperor Theodosious. (View Larger)
The Roman Empire Splits Permanently into Eastern and Western Halves
Circa 400 CE – 600At the Beginning of the Dark Ages Production of New Manuscripts Essentially Ceased 406 CE
The mentioned diptych, portraying Emperor Honorius in both panels.
The Oldest Surviving Consular Diptych
410 CE – 449 CE
A map of Britannia from A Classical Atlas of Ancient Geography by Alexander G. Findlay. New York: Harper and Brothers 1849. (View Larger)
The Withdrawal of Roman Legions from Britannia Results in the End of Literacy…
August 24, 410 CE
A depiction of Alaric I by German painter Ludwig Thiersch. (View Larger)
The Goths Sack Rome
Circa 420 CEOne of the Few Surviving Sources for the Administrative Structure of the Late Roman Empire Circa 450 CE – 650The Church Assumes Role of Educator and Civil Service for the Tribal Kingdoms Circa 450 CE – 650The Church Replaces the Roman State as the Source of Order and Stability 451 CEThe Last Victory Achieved by the Western Roman Empire December 25, 496 CEClovis I Converts to Roman Catholicism Circa 520 – 585An Archive of Papyri, Including the Oldest Surviving Poems Written by a Known Poet 524 – 525
Boethius teaching his students. (View Larger)
Thedoric Executes the Philosopher Boëthius: Beginning of the Middle Ages
541 – 542
Detail of image of Phylogenetic tree of y. pseudotuberculosis.  Y. pestis is a recently emerged clone of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Please click on link to view and resize complete image.
The Plague of Justinian
Circa 550The Anglo-Saxons Conquer England Circa 560 – 600
A page from the Cathach of St. Columba. (View Larger)
The Earliest Surviving Manuscript Written in Ireland, the Oldest Surviving…
The assassination of Alboin. (View Larger)
The Lombards Conquer Italy
638 – 1099Muslims Occupy Jerusalem for 451 Years 641
Canon 22 of the Council of Nicea II (British Museum, MS Barocci 26, fol. 140b), where the top is written in minuscule and the bottom in unical.(View Larger)
Arab Conquest of Egypt Resulted in Smaller Exports of Papyrus-- A Probable…
King Oswiu (View Larger)
King Oswiu Causes Britain to Embrace the Mainstream of Christianity
670Arabs Begin their Invasion of North Africa 691
The Dome of the Rock at Temple Mount in Jerusalem. (View Larger)
Building the Dome of the Rock
April 30, 711 – July 19, 718
A map displaying the expansion of the Umayyad empire. (View Larger)
Foundation of the Empire of al-Andalus in Spain
Charles de Steuben's 'Bataille de Poitiers,' created at sometime between 1834 and 1837, now located at Musée du château de Versailles, France.(View Larger)
Charles Martel Stops Muslim Expansion at the Battle of Tours
A map of the Silk Road. (View Larger)
Chinese Prisoners of War Convey Papermaking Techniques to the Arabs
A statue of Abd ar-Rahman in Almuñécar, Spain. (View Larger)
Abd ar-Rahman Conquers Cordoba
794 – 800Used by Charlemagne at his Coronation as Holy Roman Emperor Circa 860 – 920The Codex Spirensis, of which Only a Single Leaf of the Original Survives 962
The third imperial seal of Otto I, featuring a frontal bust of the emperor. (View Larger)
Foundation of the Holy Roman Empire
1066 – 1307More than One Million Charters Survive from the Period of Norman Rule in England September 28 – October 14, 1066
William the Conqueror, seated center, flanked by Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury, left, and Rotbert, right.  <p>William of Normandy, less well known as William the Bastard, and better known as <a href=
The Norman Conquest
August 26, 1071
A miniature from a 15th century French translation of Boccaccio's De Casibus Virorum Illustrium, showing Alp Arslan, second sultan of the Seljuk dynasty, humiliating Emperor Romanos IV. (View Larger)
Defeat of the Byzantine Empire by Turks
March – November 1095
Henri Gourgouillon's vision of Pope Urban II, located at le Place de la Victoire in Clermont-Ferrand, France. (View Larger)
Origins of the First Crusade
A 16th century portrait of King Henry II of England, by an unknown artist.
Henry II Forbids English Students to Study at Paris
1175Norman Crusaders Take Manuscripts as Spoils of War July 3, 1194Foundation of the Trésor des Chartes 1196
The Coronation of Henry IV of Liber ad honorem Augusi sive de rebus Siculis, folio 105r of MS. 120 II, Berne Municipal Library. (View Larger)
A Graphic Portrayal of 12th Century Life in Italy and Sicily
January 1215 – 1217
A 1297 copy of the Magna Carta. (View Larger)
The Magna Carta is Promulgated and Distributed
1218 – 1220
A bust of Genghis Khan. (View Larger)
The Greatest Destruction of Muslim Libraries
June 5, 1224Perhaps the Oldest State-Supported University June 3, 1240
A portrait of Louis IX.
Copies of the Talmud are Seized in France
June 1242Louis IX Orders the Burning of 12,000 Manuscripts of the Talmud 1253
Henry III, by an unknown artist. (View Larger)
The Domus Conversorum, Later the Public Record Office
A map illustrating both the first and second Polo expeditions. (View Larger)
The Travels of Niccolo and Maffeo Polo
A map of the Polos' eastward journey, begun in 1271. (View Larger)
Carrying the Pope's Response to Kublai Khan
1275Early Origins of the Star Chamber 1275
Edward I, portrayed in the stained glass of Westminster Abbey.
Edward I's Statute of the Jewry
John of Monte Corvino.
The First European Patrons of the Art of Printing?
1320 – 1340The Luttrell Psalter, Preserving the Memory of Ordinary Folk Alongside the Mighty and the Wealthy 1347 – 1353
The spread of the Bubonic plague in Europe. (View Larger)
The Black Death
Circa 1350Writing Zilbaldone Circa 1430The Aztec Emperor Itzcoatl Orders the Burning of All Historical Codices May 29 – June 1453
A portrait of Mehmed II by Gentile Bellini.
The Ottoman Turks Capture Constantinople, Resulting in the Transfer of…
October 27, 1462
The coat of arms of Archbishop Diether von Isenberg, as depicted in the modern stain glass of the Mainz Cathedral.
Warfare Accelerates the Spread of Printing
July 12, 1470 – 1471Ancestors of the First Newspapers? The Fall of Negroponte: One of the First News Events to be Discussed in Print 1484The Sultan Prohibits Turks from Printing August 1485"A Horse, A Horse, My Kingdom for a Horse." April 1487"Malleus Malleficarum", Handbook for Witch-Hunters and Inquisitors January 30, 1492Restoring the Whole of Spain to Christian Rule March 31, 1492Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand Expell the Jews from Spain July 30 – October 12, 1492Departure of Columbus for the New World & the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain August 1492Sultan Bayezid II Wellcomes Jewish Refugees from Spain February 15, 1493Columbus's Description of the New World: the First Eyewitness Report to Become a Bestseller; in 2016, Reports of a Theft and Forgery of a Copy of the Third Edition December 13, 1493The First Book Printed in the Ottoman Empire 1500 – 1700Avvisi: Hand-Written Newsletters Conveying Political, Military and Economic News May 26, 1521The Emperor Charles V Issues "The Law of Printing" in Response to the Excommunication of Luther May 6, 1527 – February 1528Troups Loyal to Charles V Sack Rome, Marking the End of the High Renaissance 1536 – 1541
 In 1536, King Henry VIII formally disbands all monasteries in his realm and seizes their property, including thousands of books and manuscripts, most of which were subsequently lost or destroyed.  (View Larger)
Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries Brings Destruction and Dispersal…
Circa 1540The Codex Mendoza, Perhaps Commissioned by Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza 1543
 In 1543, Martin Luther publishes the first modern antisemitic work, going so far as to condone the enslavement and murder of Jews, writing that the public is 'at fault in not slaying them.' (View Larger)
Martin Luther Issues the First Work of Modern Antisemitism
1563In an Expose of the Witchcraft Delusion Johann Weyer Presents One of the First Scientific Approaches to the Study of Mental Illness 1569 – 1570Perrissin & Tortorel Issue the First Extended Series of Prints Attempting to Depict Great Events of the Recent Past June 23, 1586The Star Chamber Court Consolidates and Amplifies the Regulation of Printing in England August 17, 1603Federico Cesi Founds the Accademia dei Lincei, the First Scientific Society 1608The Venetian Government Issues the First Prepaid Letter Sheets 1611Jacques Bongars Issues the First Collection of Chronicles of the Crusades 1622Maximilian Donates the Bibliotheca Palatina to the Vatican August 23, 1633 – June 10, 1641
Théophraste Renaudot
Théophraste Renaudot's Conferences Predate the Royal Society
1634Introduction of Book Burning by the Hangman 1639 – 2013
Box of Pages from the Great Parchment Book (before rehousing)
"The Great Parchment Book" and Its Digital Restoration After Three Centuries
1640Abolition of the Star Chamber Court Stimulates Publishing 1640 – 1660Sixty Printed Books and Three Newsbooks Are Ordered to be Burned April 1665 – September 1666
A scanning electron micrograph depicting a mass of Yersinia pestis bacteria, which is the cause of the Bubonic Plague.
The Great Plague of London
September 2 – September 5, 1666The Great Fire of London 1677Precursor of Malthus June 25, 1678The First Doctoral Degree is Awarded to a Woman April 1688The First American Public Document to Protest Slavery and One of the First Written Public Declarations of Universal Human Rights January 1731Edward Cave Founds "The Gentleman's Magazine," the First General-Interest Periodical and the First to Use the Word "Magazine" to Indicate a Storehouse of Knowledge 1751 – 1780Diderot & d'Alembert's Encyclopédie, the Central Enterprise of the French Enlightenment May 9, 1754The First American Political Cartoon: "JOIN, or DIE." 1759Voltaire Issues "Candide, ou l'Optimism" Anonymously and Secretively 1766Aristotle's Complete Masterpiece: Probably the Earlest Illustrated Medical Book Published in the American Colonies 1769 – 1775Richard Arkwright Invents his Spinning Machine: Mass Production Instigating Disruptive Economic & Social Change in the Industrial Revolution April 17, 1775The American Revolutionary War Begins July 4 – August 2, 1776
Detail of the Declaration of Independence of the United States.  Please click on link to view and resize entire image.
The Declaration of Independence is Approved and Printed
1777 – 1787Mesmer & the Animal Magnetism Movement: An Archive November 15, 1777 – March 1, 1781The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union 1784 – 1791Johann Gottfried von Herder, Enlightenment Precursor of Evolution by Natural Selection May 22, 1787 – 1807Foundation of the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade September 17, 1787 – June 21, 1788
Detail from The Constitution of the United States. Please click on the link below to view and resize full image.
The Constitution of the United States
1789Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, Martyr to Chemistry January 23 – July 14, 1789Bastille Day Occurs August 26 – August 27, 1789
Detail of Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen by Jean-Jacques le Barbier.  Please click on link below to view and resize entire image.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
September 25, 1789 – December 15, 1791The Bill of Rights 1790Death by Printing Press in Stockholm August 2, 1790The First U.S. Census is Taken September 27, 1791Jews Receive Full Citizenship in France December 5, 1791Alexander Hamilton Issues "The Magna Carta of Industrial America" 1793The Bibliothèque nationale de France Becomes the First Free Public National Library 1793 – 1794Henri Grégoire Proposes a National Bibliography of France 1793The "First Printer of National Liberty" Issues the Printing Manual for the French Revolution 1793 – 1794The Metric System is Promulgated 1798Tsar Paul I Suppresses Private Printing in Russia 1798 – 1799Napoleon's Imprimerie Nationale, the First Printing Presses in Africa since 1516 1801The First Census of England, Scotland and Wales is Undertaken 1806 – 1821Méchain, Delambre, Biot & Arago Calculate the Meter (Metre) Scientifically 1807William Wilberforce Crusades for the Abolition of Slavery in the British Empire November 11, 1811 – January 12, 1813The Ludd Riots Occur August 25, 1814The Library of Congress is Destroyed During the War of 1812 September – November 1814Francis Scott Key Issues "The Star Spangled Banner" 1822Babbage Begins Construction of his Difference Engine No. 1 1822
Title page of Illustrations and Proofs of the Principle of Population: Including an Examination of the Proposed Remedies of Mr. Malthus, and a Reply to the Objections of Mr. Godwin and Others.
Francis Place Founds the Birth Control Movement
December 1822The First Indigenous Arabic Press in Egypt 1824"The Harrisburg Pennsylvanian" Conducts the First Opinion Poll 1831Writer & Publisher Charles Knight Explains How Mechanized Printing Delivers Information Faster & at Costs Affordable to All 1837 – 1840The Penny Post: Perhaps the Greatest Single Stimulus to Written Communication 1841Charles MacKay Issues an Exposition of Financial Bubbles May 1, 1843The First Commercial Christmas Card February 1848The French Revolution of 1848 in Europe's Year of Revolutions February 21, 1848The Communist Manifesto April 7, 1859Having Refused to Support Babbage, the British Government Pays for a Difference Engine Produced in Sweden 1860 – 1861The Autograph Manuscript of Mill's "Considerations on Representative Government" 1862William A. Hammond Founds the National Museum of Health and Medicine July 1, 1862
Text of first page of HR 312 also known as the Revenue Act of 1862.
Origins of the Internal Revenue Service
January 1, 1863 – 1864Lincoln Issues the Emancipation Proclamation 1865Frederick Law Olmsted Presents the Philosophical Justification for Public Preservation of Great Natural Scenery 1865 – 1867 The Role of Women as Typesetters in the French Printing Industry 1867The Surgeon General's Library & Museum Are Moved to the Site of Lincoln's Assassination September 14, 1867Marx's "Das Kapital" is Published 1870British Telegraph is Nationalized 1870Requiring Universal Education of Children Between the Ages of 5 and 12 in England and Wales 1876 – 1877"Street Life in London": Pioneering Social Documentary Photography as a Form of Photojournalism 1885Pioneering Sociological Study of China 1886Formation of the National Audubon Society 1890"How the Other Half Lives": Pioneering Photojournalistic Muckraking 1891 – 1905Government Surveillance of Refugee Reading Habits at the British Museum, 1891-1905 May 28, 1892The Sierra Club is Founded 1898The Garden City Movement January – February 20, 1909"The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism" August 25, 1914Destruction of the University Library at Leuven 1916The First National Opinion Poll? 1916 – 1924Napoleon's Penis, and Other Napoleon Memorabilia April 23, 1916The Proclamation of the Irish Republic October 1916 – October 25, 1917The Russian Revolution November 11, 1918The End of World War I 1923Foundation of Public Relations 1925 – 1927Blue-Print for The Third Reich April 3, 1933 – 1934Invention of the Sociogram: Some of the Earliest Graphic Depictions of Social Networks April 6, 1933 – 1945Hitler Seizes Power in Germany and the Nazis Begin Purging Germany of Jews & Jewish Culture, Eventually Burning 100,000,000 Books and Killing About 20 Million People 1935 – 1936The Social Security Program Creates a Giant Data-Processing Challenge January 21, 1935Foundation of The Wilderness Society September 1935IBM's German Subsidiary, Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen, Introduces the First Automatic Sequence-Controlled Calculator 1937 – 1942The Only Known Complete Inventory of Art Labeled "Degenerate" by the Nazis 1939One of the First "Maps of Science" April 6, 1941The Nazis Destroy the National Library of Serbia December 7, 1941Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor; U.S. Declares War on Japan October 1944Repeated Dispersal and Eventual Burning of the Greatest Library in Poland September 2, 1945World War II Ends September 15, 1947The EACM, Predecessor of the ACM, Holds its First Meeting December 10, 1948The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is Adopted by the United Nations 1949 – 1951Foundation of MIT's Lincoln Laboratory and SAGE 1949Orwell's "Nineteen Eighty-Four" is Published September 4, 1951President Truman Makes the First Transcontinental Television Broadcast November 4, 1952The National Security Agency is Founded 1954Coining the Phrase "Social Network" December 12 – December 14, 1954One of the Earliest Surviving British Television Dramas 1956Standing up to Censorship and McCarthyism During the "Second Red Scare" 1956"Nineteen Eighty-Four" Filmed October 4, 1957Sputnik is Launched February 7, 1958ARPA is Founded July 29 – October 1, 1958NASA is Founded September 21, 1960The Kennedy-Nixon Presidential Debates: The Beginning of Television's Dominance over Print as a Popular News Medium January 17, 1961President Eisenhower Warns About the Increasing Influence of the Military-Industrial Complex 1962McLuhan Issues "The Gutenberg Galaxy" 1962ICPSR, The Largest Archive of Digital Social Science Data, is Founded at the University of Michigan July 28, 1962First of the "Ten Greatest Software Bugs of All Time" November 1962"The potential contributions of computers depend upon their use by very human human beings." 1963Bob Dylan's "The Times They Are A-Changin' " November 23, 1963The Assassination of John F. Kennedy & its Coverage on Radio & Television 1964Mosteller & Wallace Apply Computing in Disputed Authorship Investigation of The Federalist Papers 1964Social Security Numbers as Identifiers 1964Bertram Gross Coins the Term "Information Overload" January 11, 1964Luther Terry Issues The Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health May 1964720 Million Copies Printed and Distributed in Under Four Years 1965U.S. Senate Hearings on the Invasion of Privacy by Computers 1966Cyrus Levinthal Builds the First System for Interactive Display of Molecular Structures July 4, 1966President Lyndon B. Johnson Signs the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) 1967Henry Kucera and Nelson Francis Issue "Computational Analysis of Present-Day American English" March 1967U.S. Senate Hearings on Computer Privacy Occur July 21, 1969A Problem with the Apollo 11 Guidance Computer Nearly Prevents the First Moon Walk November 14, 1970UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property 1970 June 13, 1971Daniel Ellsberg Releases the Pentagon Papers 1973The Politics of Nonviolent Action May 1974The Privacy Act of 1974 1976The World Event/Interaction Survey: A Pioneering Application of Systems Theory to International Relations 1983The Declining Role of Print in Total Information Flow 1994Match.com is Founded 1994"Death by Government" Statistics 1900-1987 1994The Kansas Event Data System (KEDS): A System for the Machine Coding of International Event Data Based on Pattern Recognition October 1994Whitehouse.gov Becomes Operational October 13, 1994The National Digital Library Program is Announced 1996A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace June 26, 1997The Internet is Entitled to the Full Protection Given to Printed Material November 6, 1998President Clinton Sends the First Ever Presidential Email 2000Conflict and Mediation Event Observations (CAMEO) December 14 – December 21, 2000"Weapons of Financial Mass Destruction"? January 2002 – 2003The Information Awareness Office 2003
IRS logo
Customer Account Data Engine
January 2003Regulations.gov is Launched December 10 – December 12, 2003
World Summit on the Information Society logo
The World Summit on the Information Society
May 9, 2005 – February 7, 2011
The Huffington Post homepage
AOL Buys The Huffington Post
August 12, 2005
Gary Urton with some khipu
The First Intelligible Word from an Extinct South American Civilization?
November 20, 2006
The Environmental Protection Agency seal
The EPA Begins to Close its Scientific Libraries
December 2006
Julian Assange
"An Uncensorable System for Mass Document Leaking"
December 31, 2006
Julian Assange
Wikileaks Manifesto
The Gutenberg Bible
More than 4.7 Billion Bibles Were Been Printed Between 1455 and 2007
February 11, 2007
Barack Obama, the 44th president of the United States
May 30, 2007
Carl Bildt
The First Embassy of a Real Country in a Virtual World
July 23 – November 28, 2007The CNN/ YouTube Presidential Debates: The First Internet to Television Debate Partnership March 3, 2008Statistical Analysis Correctly Forecasts the Election of Obama October 20, 2008The Obama-Biden Campaign Launches Facebook Connect Integration on My.BarackObama.com November 4, 2008An Election Reported Interactively in Real Time November 5, 2008Change.gov is Founded December 8, 2008"Securing Cyberspace for the 44th Presidency" April 7, 2009Australia to Build National Fiber Optic 100 Megabit Network May 19, 2009"Green Dam Youth Escort" June 23, 2009"The Web Pries Lid off Iranian Censorship" August 25, 2009Displaying Crowdsourced Road Congestion Data on Google Maps November 26 – November 26, 2009U.S. National Text Pager Intercepts from 9/11 Are Released January 13, 2010After the Earthquake in Haiti, Donating by SMS Text February 2010"Assessing the Future Landscape of Scholarly Communication. . . " February 2010Liberté ou la Mort: Julia Gaffield Discovers Haiti's Declaration of Independence February 1, 2010Social Media Interviews the President July 29, 2010Wikileaks Installs an "Insurance File" November 28 – December 8, 2010The Wikileaks U. S. Diplomatic Cables Leak December 8, 2010The Website of MasterCard is Hacked by Wikileaks Supporters December 16, 2010The Cultural Observatory at Harvard Introduces Culturomics December 29, 2010Facebook is the Most Searched for and Most Visited Website in America February 10, 2011Worldwide Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information June 10, 2011Digital Democracy is Not So Democratic July 7 – July 17, 2011Leading British Tabloid Closed Because of Cell Phone Hacking Scandal December 17, 2011Burning of the Library of l'Institut de l'Egypte January 10, 2012Transforming Google into a Search Engine that Understands Not Only Content but People and Relationships October 23, 20122.5 Quintillion Bytes of Data Each Day November 2012A Max Planck Institute Program for Historicizing Big Data November 29 – December 1, 2012"Anonymous" Plans to Shut Down Syrian Government Websites in Response to Countrywide Internet Blackout November 29, 2012U.S. Bill to Stengthen Privacy Protection for Emails December 27, 2012The Secret Race to Save Manuscripts in Timbuktu and Djenne December 28, 2012"Libraries Have Shifted from Warehouses of Books & Materials to Become Participatory Sites of Culture and Learning" January 20, 2013Online Reviews Used as Attack Weapons to Kill Sales of a Book April 18, 2013The Digital Public Library of America is Launched April 25, 2013How the "The Brazen Bibliophiles of Tumbuktu" Saved Manuscripts from Terrorists June 13, 2013Launching of "Founders Online" December 4, 2013Snowden Documents Show the NSA Tracking Cellphone Locations Worldwide January 2014Destruction of Canadian Environmental Libraries February 17 – February 22, 2014The First Project to Investigate the Use of Instagram During a Social Upheaval February 27, 2014PHEME: A Social Media Lie Detector April 2014Using Data-Mining of Location-Based Food and Drink Habits to Identify Cultural Boundaries April 18, 2014Matthew Gentzkow Receives Clark Medal for Study of Media Through Big Data Sets May 29, 2014The GDELT Project: The Largest Open-Access Database on Worldwide News Media August 18, 2014Putting the Footnotes in a Physical Book on the Author's Website October 21, 2014"Political Polarization and Media Habits. . . How Liberals and Conservatives Keep Up With Politics" December 6, 2016The Influence of Social Media on the English-language Web has Surpassed that of Established Media Platforms December 13, 2016"How Russian Cyberpower Invaded the U.S."