4370 entries. 94 themes. Last updated August 10, 2015.

Timeline Outline ViewEra: 1750 - 1800   |   Theme: All Themes

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Circa 1750Printing about 200 Sheets per Hour 1750Raimondo di Sangro Issues the First Extensive Treatise on the Peruvian Knot-Based Counting Language, the Quipu 1751 – 1780Diderot & d'Alembert's Encyclopédie, the Central Enterprise of the French Enlightenment 1751 – 1828Edme-François Gersaint Issues the First Significant Catalogue Raisonné in Western Art History, on Rembrandt's Prints 1753Linnaeus Develops Binomial Nomenclature for Plants January 11, 1753The British Museum is Founded 1754Jean-Jacques Barthélemy Achieves the First Significant Decipherment of an Ancient Script: Palmyrene May 9, 1754The First American Political Cartoon: "JOIN, or DIE." 1755Thomas Simpson Publishes the Earliest Formal Treatment of "Data-Processing" 1755"The First Treatise on Economics" by Richard Cantillon is Posthumously Published 1755Diderot on Information Overload, and the Encyclopedia as a Means of Organizing and Enhancing Associations in Knowledge 1756The Tallard Sale: A New Level of Connoisseurship in the Cataloguing of Works of Art 1757George II Donates the "Old Royal Library" May 5, 1757A Typographic Masterpiece, John Baskerville's First Book & the First Book Printed Partially on Wove Paper 1758Linnaeus Introduces Binomial Nomenclature for Animals 1758Barthélemy Deciphers the Phoenician Language 1759The British Museum Opens 1759Voltaire Issues "Candide, ou l'Optimism" Anonymously and Secretively 1759 – 1767Laurence Sterne's "Tristram Shandy": Philosophical and Comedic Digressions and Innovative Illustration Techniques October 6, 1759 – 1760The First Book Printed Entirely on Wove Paper Circa 1760 – 1780The Copiale Cipher is Decrypted: Initiation into a Secret Society of Oculists 1760John Mitchell Issues the First Scientific Explanation of Tsunamis April 21, 1760The First Contemporary Art Exhibition in England is Accompanied by a Catalogue 1761Astronomer Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande Writes the First Comprehensive Treatise on Papermaking 1761 – 1762Frank Nichols Publishes Probably the First Color-Printed Illustrations in a Major Scientific Periodical 1761 – 1763Barthélemy Discovers the Relationship of Egyptian Hieroglypics to Phoenician and Greek 1763Bayes's Theorem for Calculating Inverse Probabilities 1763Jean-Vincent Capronnier Gauffecourt Issues the First Separately Printed French Treatise on Bookbinding 1763 – 1782Bookseller Guillaume François de Bure Begins "Modern" Rare Book Cataloguing 1764James Hargreaves Invents the Spinning Jenny 1764 – 1766Pierre-Simon Fournier Issues an Influential Manual of Types and Typefounding 1764William Caslon Issues the First Type Specimen Book from an English Type Foundry 1765 – 1788James Watt's Key Inventions Make the Steam Engine Practical 1765Joseph Priestley Issues the First Biographical Timeline Chart January 30, 1765 – 1771Jacob Christian Schäffer Issues "The Most Interesting and Rarest Work" on Papermaking 1766Computing the Nautical Almanac, Called the "Seaman's Bible" 1766Aristotle's Complete Masterpiece: Probably the Earlest Illustrated Medical Book Published in the American Colonies 1768 – 1774The Jacquet-Droz Automata 1768 – 1771Von Heineken Issues the First Systematic Guide to Collecting Prints, Blockbooks, and the Earliest Printed books December 1768 – 1771Encyclopaedia Britannica Begins 1769 – 1775Richard Arkwright Invents his Spinning Machine: Disruptive Economic & Social Change in the Industrial Revolution 1769 – 1836Von Kempelen "Invents" the Chess-Playing Turk & Edgar Allan Poe Compares it to Babbage's Difference Engine No. 1 1769 – 1794The French Book Trade in Enlightenment Europe 1769 – 1770Joseph Priestley Issues the Most Influential Historical Timeline of the Eighteenth Century 1769 – 1774James Granger Inspires "Grangerizing," A Mania for Extra-Illustration 1769Graphic Representation of the Organization of the Encyclopédie 1770The Earliest Large-Scale Data-Processing Organization April 15, 1770Joseph Priestley & Edward Nairne Invent the Rubber Eraser? 1772Wilhelm Haas Builds Key Parts of the Handpress out of Iron 1772Joseph Priestley Discovers that Growing Plants Restore Air Vitiated by Combustion or Respiration 1773 – 1782The Siku Quanshu: Probably the Most Ambitious Editorial Enterprise before the Wikipedia 1774"Kaitai Shinsho" : The First Book on Western Medicine and Science Published in Japanese 1775Didot Revises Fournier's Point System for Typographic Units April 17, 1775The American Revolutionary War Begins 1776Adam Smith's Classic of "Laissez-Faire" July 4 – August 2, 1776
Detail of the Declaration of Independence of the United States.  Please click on link to view and resize entire image.
The Declaration of Independence is Approved and Printed
1777The Earliest Directory of the Book Trade? 1777Zimmerman Issues the First Textbook on Zoogeography 1777Georg Christoph Lichtenberg Describes "Lichtenberg Figures" 1777 – 1787Mesmer & the Animal Magnetism Movement: An Archive November 15, 1777 – March 1, 1781The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union 1778
Detail from cover of Chemische Annalen für die Freunde der Naturlehre, Arzneygelahrtheit, Haushaltungskunst und Manufacturen.  Please click on the link below to view and resize the full image.
Lorenz von Crell Begins Publication of "Chemische Annalen", the First Chemistry Journal
1779Ingen-Housz Discovers Photosynthesis 1779
Detail of plate from Gamelin's Nouveau recueil d'ostéologie et de myologie, dessin‚ d'après nature. . . pour l'utilit‚ des sciences et des arts..  Please click on link below to view and resize full image.
Jacques Gamelin Issues an Anatomy for Artists including Fantastical Elements
1780Jean-Étienne Guettard Issues the First National Geological Atlas Circa 1782Léonard Defrance Creates Panel Paintings of the Operations of a French Enlightenment Printing Shop 1782Charles-Joseph Panckoucke Issues the Prospectus for a Monumental European Encyclopedia 1782 – 1832An Encyclopedia in 206 Thick Volumes but No Comprehensive Index! 1782Charles de Fourcroy Publishes Early Graphic Representation of Statistics 1783 – 1784Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond Reports on the First Aerial Voyages 1783 – 1785Noah Webster Reforms the Teaching of English in the United States 1784 – 1785"Paper Architect" Etienne-Louis Boullée Envisages In One Gigantic Reading Room the Entire "Memory of the World" 1784 – 1804The First Book Printed on Machine-Made Paper, the First Book Printed on a Stanhope Press, & the First Book Printed by the Foulis & Tilloch Method of Stereotyping, as Improved by Earl Stanhope 1784John Mitchell is the First to Study the Effect of Gravity on Light 1784Thomas Astle Issues the First English History of Paleography and Diplomatics 1784Abel Buell Issues the First Map of the United States Printed in the United States 1784 – 1791Johann Gottfried von Herder, Enlightenment Precursor of Evolution by Natural Selection February 9, 1784 – 1805Mozart's Autograph Catalogue of His Own Compositions, and its First Printed Editions 1785Origin of "The Times" of London 1785William Withering Proves the Clinical Value of Digitalis 1785 – 1786William Playfair Founds Statistical Graphics, and Invents the Line Chart and Bar Chart 1785John Pendred Issues the Earliest Directory of the Book Trade in England Circa 1785Oliver Evans Builds the First Automated Flour Mill 1785The Whitebread Engine, the Earliest Surviving Rotative Steam Engine Built by Boulton & Watt 1786Samuel Taylor Develops the First System of Shorthand Used Throughout the English Speaking World 1786Richard Payne Knight Records Early Archaeological Explorations of Ancient Fertility Rites February 2, 1786 – 1788William Jones Founds Comparative Linguistics 1787The First Catalogue of the British Museum Library is Published May 22, 1787 – 1807Foundation of the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade September 17, 1787 – June 21, 1788
Detail from The Constitution of the United States. Please click on the link below to view and resize full image.
The Constitution of the United States
1788The Beginnings of Papyrology 1789 – 1792Christopher Colles Issues the First Road Atlas of the United States 1789Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, Martyr to Chemistry 1789Zefirino Campanini Writes the First Italian Printing Manual January 23 – July 14, 1789Bastille Day Occurs August 26 – August 27, 1789
Detail of Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen by Jean-Jacques le Barbier.  Please click on link below to view and resize entire image.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
September 25, 1789 – December 15, 1791The Bill of Rights 1790Foundation of the Archives nationales de France 1790 – 1841The Early Development of the Mechanized or Machine Press as Conceptualized by Nicholson and Developed by Koenig as Others 1790 – 1802André-Charles Caillot Issues a Bibliographical Guide to Antiquarian Bookselling and Collecting, with a Pioneering Exposition on Rarity 1790Death by Printing Press in Stockholm April 10 – July 31, 1790George Washington Founds the U.S. Patent System August 2, 1790The First U.S. Census is Taken 1791Von Kempelen Builds the First Successful Speech Synthesizer 1791Earliest Precursor to the Dust Jacket? 1791The First National Code of Descriptive Cataloging--Early Use of Cards in Cataloging Books 1791François-Xavier Laire Writes the First Catalogue of Incunabula Resembling Modern Bibliographies January 24, 1791Jeremy Belknap Founds the First Historical Society in the United States February 18, 1791Thomas Jefferson Describes Printing as a Way to Preserve Information March 2, 1791 – 1794The Optical Telegraph: Faster than a Messenger on Horseback September 27, 1791Jews Receive Full Citizenship in France December 5, 1791Alexander Hamilton Issues "The Magna Carta of Industrial America" Circa 1792 – 1819James Perkins Invents Steel Engraving 1793The Bibliothèque nationale de France Becomes the First Free Public National Library 1793 – 1801de Prony Produces Mathematical Tables Calculated by Hairdressers Unemployed after the French Revolution 1793 – 1794Henri Grégoire Proposes a National Bibliography of France 1793The "First Printer of National Liberty" Issues the Printing Manual for the French Revolution 1793 – 1794The Metric System is Promulgated 1793Christian Konrad Sprengel Issues the Founding Work of Floral Ecology 1794Lazaro Spallanzani Discovers Echolocation or Biosonar 1795Isaiah Thomas Issues the First American Book Printed on Wove Paper 1795Nicholas Jacques Conté Invents Modern Pencil Lead 1795Friedrich August Wolf Argues that the Poetry of Homer Shoud be Studied as a Product of Oral Tradition 1795 – 1809Carl Friedrich Gauss & Adrien-Marie Legendre Discover the Method of Least Squares 1795Gottfried Erich Rosenthal Issues the First Comprehensive Bibliography of Technology 1796 – 1819Alois Senefelder Invents & Develops Lithography 1796Amerlia Simmons Writes the First American Cookbook Written by an American 1796Binny & Ronaldson Open the First American Type Foundry 1797Giovanni Battista Venturi Begins Scientific and Art Historical Studies on Leonardo da Vinci 1798 – 1840Frenchman Louis-Nicolas Robert Invents the First Papermaking Machine, but it is Developed in England by John Gamble, the Fourdriniers & John Dickinson 1798Tsar Paul I Suppresses Private Printing in Russia 1798 – 1799Napoleon's Imprimerie Nationale, the First Printing Presses in Africa since 1516 1798Malthus on Population 1798The First Official National Industrial Exposition Occurs in Paris 1798 – 1799Pajot des Charmes Introduces Bleach in Paper Production, Facilitating Recycling of Paper 1799 – 1827Pierre-Simon Laplace Issues "Traité de méchanique céleste" Circa 1800By this Stage in the Industrial Revolution All Phases of Cloth Production Are Performed by Machines 1800Phasing Out Latin as the International Language Circa 1800Earl Stanhope Invents the First Completely Iron Printing Press Circa 1800 – 1820The Gradual Disappearance of the Long S in Typography 1800 – 1802Mathias Koop Issues the First Book Printed on Recycled Paper, with an Appendix Printed on Paper Made from Wood Pulp Circa 1800Maillardet's Automaton Circa 1800 – 1840Economic & Technological Advances Spur the Development of Newspapers in the U.S. April 24, 1800President John Adams Signs Initial Funding of the Library of Congress