4406 entries. 94 themes. Last updated December 26, 2016.

Timeline Outline ViewEra: 1960 - 1970   |   Theme: All Themes

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1960John Horty Pioneers Computer-Assisted Legal Research 1960The First Commercially Available General Purpose Computer with Transistor Logic 1960The Monotype Monomatic Hot Type Machine is Introduced 1960
William A Fetter: while working for Boeing, made the first computer model of the human body (
William Fetter Coins the Term "Computer Graphics"
19606000 Computers are Operational in the U.S., Out of 10,000 Worldwide 1960 – December 9, 2013Greatbatch, Chardack & Gage Implant the First Self-Contained Internally Powered Artificial Pacemaker in a Human 1960John McCarthy Intoduces LISP, The Language of Choice for Artificial Intelligence 1960PLATO 1: The First Electronic Learning System 1960 – November 20, 1968"Prater-Wei," The First Software Patent 1960Theodore Maiman Invents the First Working Laser Circa 1960The Johns Hopkins Beast 1960The First and Only Use of Smell-O-Vision 1960The National Library of Medicine Introduces Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) March 1960Licklider Describes "Man-Computer Symbiosis" April 1, 1960The TIROS 1 Satellite Transmits the First Television Picture from Space September 13 – September 15, 1960The First Symposium on Bionics September 21, 1960The Kennedy-Nixon Presidential Debates: The Beginning of Television's Dominance over Print as a Popular News Medium November 1960Technical Basis for the Development of Phreaking December 1960"Colossal Typewriter" : One of the Earliest Computer Text Editors December 6 – December 7, 1960COBOL Allows Compatibility Between Computers Made by Different Manufacturers 1961Arthur C. Clarke Publishes "Dial F for Frankenstein," an Inspiration for Tim Berners-Lee 1961The QUOTRON Computerized Stock-Quotation System Is Introduced 1961Crick & Brenner Propose The Genetic Code 1961Compugraphic Develops a Special-Purpose Typesetting Computer 1961"Compatible Time Sharing System," Precursor of Word Processing and Email 1961George Forsythe Coins the Term "Computer Science" 1961 – 1962"Expensive Typewriter": The First Word Processing Program 1961Brenner, Jacob & Meselson Demonstrate the Existence of Messenger RNA 1961Jacob & Monod Explain the Basic Process of Regulating Gene Expression in Bacteria 1961The IBM 7094 is The First Computer to Sing January 17, 1961President Eisenhower Warns About the Increasing Influence of the Military-Industrial Complex April 12, 1961Yuri Gagarin Becomes the First Human to Travel into Space and the First to Orbit the Earth May 1961 – 1962Wesley Clark Builds the LINC, Perhaps the First Mini-Computer May 31, 1961Leonard Kleinrock Writes the First Paper on Data Networking Theory October 19, 1961Texas Instruments Delivers the First Integrated Circuit Computer: An Achievement in Miniaturization December 28, 1961Origins of the IBM System/360 1962Spacewar, the First Computer Game for a Commercially Available Computer 1962Rachel Carson Issues "Silent Spring" 1962McLuhan Issues "The Gutenberg Galaxy" 1962Computers Drive Linotype Hot Metal Typesetters 1962Inforonics Develops One of the First Data Publishing and Retrieval Systems 1962Nick Holonyak, Jr. Invents the First Visible LED 1962ICPSR, The Largest Archive of Digital Social Science Data, is Founded at the University of Michigan 1962Fritz Machlup Introduces the Concept of "The Information Economy" 1962Bell Labs Develops the First Digitally Multiplexed Transmission of Voice Signals 1962Roger Tomlinson Develops the First True Operational Geographic Information System (GIS) 1962Alvar Ellegård Makes the First Use of Computers to Study Disputed Authorship April 1962Kleinrock Introduces the Concept Later Known as Packet Switching Circa June 1962Licklider & Clark Publish "Online Man-Computer Communication" July 10, 1962TELSTAR 1: The First Satellite to Relay Signals from Earth to Satellite and Back July 11 – July 23, 1962Telstar 1 Relays the First Live Trans-Atlantic TV Broadcasts July 28, 1962First of the "Ten Greatest Software Bugs of All Time" August 28, 1962Among the Beginnings of Computer Art in the United States October 1962Douglas Engelbart Issues "Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework" October 1, 1962Licklider at the Information Processing Techniques Office, Begins Funding Research that Leads to the ARPANET November 1962"The potential contributions of computers depend upon their use by very human human beings." December 1962General Motors and IBM Develop the First CAD Program 1963Edward Zajac Produces the First Computer-Animated Film 1963ASCII is Promulgated 1963Ivan Sutherland Creates the First Graphical User Interface 1963Compugraphic Develops the First General Typesetting Computers 1963Bob Dylan's "The Times They Are A-Changin' " 1963Foundation of Engelbart's Augmentation Research Center 1963 – 1966Using his BEFLIX Computer Animation Language, Ken Knowlton Produces "A Computer Technique for the Production of Animated Movies" 1963Feigenbaum & Feldman Issue "Computers and Thought," the First Anthology on Artificial Intelligence 1963Julio Cortázar Issues the First "Hypertext" Novel, Before Hypertext 1963John Q. Morton Applies Computing to Authorship of the Pauline Epistles April 25, 1963Licklider Describes the "Intergalactic Computer Network" May 1963 – 1965Machine Perception of Three Dimensional Solids July 16 – July 27, 1963
Detail of cover of Printing and the Mind of Man.  Please click to see entire image.
The Printing and the Mind of Man Exhibition
July 26, 1963The First Geosynchronous Communications Satellite is Launched October 6, 1963Probably the First Book Typeset by Computer October 14, 1963The Beinicke Rare Book & Manuscript Library Opens at Yale November 1963Touch-Tone Dialing is Introduced November 20, 1963First Use of the Term "Hacker" in the Context of Computing November 23, 1963The Assassination of John F. Kennedy & its Coverage on Radio & Television 1964Mathematical Theory of Data Communications 1964On Distributed Communications 1964The First Commercial Computers to Use Integrated Circuits 1964The First Online Reservation System 1964Social Security Numbers as Identifiers 1964Thomas Kurtz & John Kemeny Invent BASIC 1964The First Computerized Encyclopedia 1964Science Citation Index 1964
The First to Create Three-Dimensional Images of the Human Body Using a Computer
1964IBM's Magnetic Tape/Selectric Typewriter Begins "Word Processing" 1964Bitzer & Willson Invent the First Plasma Video Display (Neon Orange) 1964 – 1966Woodrow Bledsoe Originates of Automated Facial Recognition 1964Marshall McLuhan's "The Medium is the Message" 1964Bertram Gross Coins the Term "Information Overload" 1964 – March 24, 1970IBM Receives the Fundamental Patent for Disk Drives 1964 – 1966Joseph Weizenbaum Writes ELIZA: A Pioneering Experiment in Artificial Intelligence Programming 1964Mosteller & Wallace Apply Computing in Disputed Authorship Investigation of The Federalist Papers January 1964MEDLARS: The First Large Scale Computer-Based Retrospective Search Service Available to the General Public January 11, 1964Luther Terry Issues The Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health February 14, 1964Texas Instruments & Zenith Radio Introduce a Hearing Aid, the First Consumer Product Containing an Integrated Circuit March – June 1964Solomonoff Begins Algorithmic Information Theory April 7, 1964The IBM System/360 Family is Introduced May 1964720 Million Copies Printed and Distributed in Under Four Years August 1964The Rand Tablet: One of the Earliest Tablet Computers and the First Reference to Electronic Ink August 19, 1964SYNCOM 3, The First Geostationary Communication Satellite, Is Launched September 9 – September 11, 1964Arader, Parrish & Bessinger Organize the First Humanities Computing or Digital Humanities Conference October 1964Introduction of the Moog Synthesizer November 1964A Meeting Between Licklider and Lawrence G. Roberts Leads to the Original Planning for What Would Eventually Become ARPANET November 6, 1964TYPESET and RUNOFF: Text Formatting Program and Forerunner of Word Processors 1965
Example of image from Computer Graphics in Communication.  Please click to view larger image.
William Fetter Issues the First Book on Computer Graphics
1965Licklider Issues "Libraries of the Future" 1965Honeywell Produces an Early Home Computer? 1965Tom Van Vleck & Noel Morris Write One of the First Email Programs 1965U.S. Senate Hearings on the Invasion of Privacy by Computers 1965Ted Nelson Coins the Terms Hypertext, Hypermedia, and Hyperlink 1965The U.S. Postal Services Introduces OCR 1965 – 2009Charles Kao Proposes Optical Fibers as a Medium for Communication 1965 – 1969The TUTOR Programming Language for Education and Games 1965 – 1968Henriette Avram Develops the MARC Cataloguing Standard 1965Irving John Good Originates the Concept of the Technological Singularity 1965Theodore Schellenberg Issues "The Management of Archives" is Published 1965Feigenbaum, Djerassi & Lederberg Develop DENDRAL the First Expert System 1965 – 1966Carver Mead Builds the First Schottky-Barrier Gate Field Effect Transistor 1965 – 1966Michael Noll's "Human or Machine" : Comparing Computer-Generated Art with Human Created Art January 1965John Alan Robinson Introduces the Resolution Principle February 5 – November 26, 1965The Earliest Public Exhibitions of Computer Art April 1965The Cooley-Tukey FFT Algorithm April 1965Maurice Wilkes Introduces Memory Caching April 6, 1965INTELSAT 1: The First Commercial Communications Satellite to be Placed in Geosynchronous Orbit April 19, 1965Gordon Moore Promulgates "Moore's Law" July 1965
Detail of cover of the July 1965 issue of Fortune.  Please click to see entire image.
Walter Allner Designs the First Magazine Cover Using Computer Graphics
October 1965Lawrence G. Roberts Does the First "Actual Network Experiment" 1966The NY Stock Exchange Completes Automation of Trading 1966Semi-Conductor Memory Replaces Magnetic-Core Memory 1966The IRS Completes Computerization of Income-Tax Processing 1966Robert H. Dennard of IBM Invents DRAM 1966Aaron Klug Invents Digital Image Processing 1966The Amateur Computer Society, Possibly the First Personal Computer Club, is Founded 1966Data Corporation Develops a Computer-Assisted Full-Text Inventory System 1966Roger K. Summit's DIALOG Information Retrieval System is Operational at Lockheed Aircraft 1966The Second Vatican Council Abolishes the Index Librorum Prohibitorum 1966Cyrus Levinthal Builds the First System for Interactive Display of Molecular Structures 1966NCR Issues the Smallest Published Edition of the Bible, and the First to Reach the Moon 1966Douglas Parkhill Issues a Predictive Discussion of the Features of Cloud Computing 1966 – 1972Stanford Research Institute Develops Shakey, the First Intelligent Mobile Robot July 1966"Bobb Goldsteinn" Coins the Term Multimedia July 4, 1966President Lyndon B. Johnson Signs the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) September 1966Joseph Raben Founds "Computers and the Humanities", the First Humanities Computing Journal October 1966Laurence G. Roberts Describes Networking Research at MIT December 1966Lawrence G. Roberts Begins the Design of the ARPANET 1967 – 1983Jacques Bertin's "Sémiologie graphique" is Published 1967Donald Watts Davies Performs an Experiment in Packet Switching 1967Data Corporation Develops a Full-Text Interactive Search Service 1967Ted Nelson & Andries van Dam Develop the First Hypertext Editing System 1967 – June 25, 1974Jack Kilby and Texas Instruments Invent the First Hand-Held Electronic Calculator 1967The Museum Computer Network is Founded in New York 1967Robert MacArthur & E.O. Wilson Issue "The Theory of "Island" Biogeography" 1967Andrew Viterbi Develops the Viterbi Algorithm 1967Henry Kucera and Nelson Francis Issue "Computational Analysis of Present-Day American English" 1967Edmund Bowles Issues The First Anthology of Research on Humanities Computing 196735,000 Computers Are Operational in the United States 1967Ellis Batten Page Begins Automated Essay Scoring March 1967U.S. Senate Hearings on Computer Privacy Occur April 1967Wesley Clark Suggests the Use of Interface Message Processors on ARPANET Circa May – September 1967Protecting Security in a Networked Environment June 1967Steven A. Coons Develops the "Coons Patch" in Computer Graphics June 25, 1967"Our World," the First Live, International Satellite Television Production June 27, 1967 – November 17, 1970Douglas Engelbart Invents the Computer Mouse July 5, 1967Frederick G. Kilgour Begins Development of OCLC October 1967Donald W. Davies Introduces the Term "Packet" to Describe Discrete Blocks of Data October 1967Lawrence G. Roberts Issues the First Paper on the Design of the ARPANET 1968The Computer Artis Society, the First Society for Computer Art, is Founded in London 1968Ivan Sutherland and Bob Sproull Create the First Virtual Reality Head Mounted Display System 1968Evans & Sutherland Commercialize the Use of Computers as Simulators 1968The HP 9100A, the First Marketed, Mass-Produced Programmable Calculator, or Personal Computer 1968 – 1981NUC: The Largest Printed Bibliography, Complete in 754 Folio Volumes 1968Stanley Kubrick & Arthur C. Clarke Create "2001: A Space Odyssey" 1968Philip K. Dick Imagines Replicants 1968Unbundling at IBM Gives Rise to the Software and Services Industry 1968 – 1984Helmut Gröttrup & Jürgen Dethloff Invent the "Smart Card" 1968Stewart Brand Issues "The Whole Earth Catalog": Google and Blogging before the Internet 1968Stephen A. Benton Invents the Rainbow Hologram or Benton Hologram 1968Andries van Dam Develops Probably the First Hypertext System Used in Education 1968Max Perutz Solves the Molecular Structure of Hemoglobin at High Resolution 1968"Incredible Machine" State of the Art in Computer Generated Film, Graphics and Music in 1968 Circa 1968 – 1985Lee Harrison's Scanimate: The First Widely Applied Analog Computer Animation System January 1968Aaron Klug Invents Three-Dimensional Image Processing February 1968Federico Faggin and Colleagues Invent Silicon Gate Technology at Fairchild Semiconductor April 1968Licklider & Taylor Describe Features of the Future ARPANET; Description of a Computerized Personal Assistant April 1968The First U.S. Conference on Museum Computing Occurs at the Metropolitan Museum of Art July 18, 1968 – 1985Landmark Products from the Early Years of Intel Corporation August 1968Max Perutz Opens Up the Field of Molecular Pathology August 2 – October 20, 1968Cybernetic Serendipity: The First Widely-Attended International Exhibition of Computer Art August 5, 1968The Vanderbilt Television News Archive is Founded October 7 – October 11, 1968The Term Software Engineering is Coined November 1968Philip Bagley Coins the Term "Metadata" November 27, 1968 – February 9, 1969K. G. Pontius Hultén Curates "The Machine as Seen at the End of the Mechanical Age" : An Art Exhibition December 1968
Cover of Computer Art and Human Response by Lloyd Sumner.
Lloyd Sumner Issues The First Monograph by a Computer Artist
December 9, 1968Douglas Engelbart Demonstrates Hypertext, Text Editing, Windows, Email and a Mouse: "The Mother of All Demos" December 24, 1968The First Manned Apollo Flights Occur Circa 1969 – 1970The First ATM is Installed at Chemical Bank in New York 1969Kenneth Thompson & Dennis Ritchie Develop UNIX, Making Open Systems Possible 196932,393 New Books Are Published in the U.K. 1969Compuserve, the First Commercial Online Service, is Founded 1969Willard Boyle & George Smith Develop the CCD, a Sensor for Recording Images 1969 – 1971Gary Starkweather at Xerox Invents the Laser Printer Circa 1969IBM Introduces the Generalized Markup Language (GML) 1969Konrad Zuse Issues "Rechnender Raum," the First Book on Digital Physics Circa 1969EMS Produces the First Digital Sampler in the First Digital Music Studio 1969Houghton Mifflin Issues the First Dictionary Based on Corpus Linguistics 1969Heinz von Foerster Issues the First Book on Computer Music to Include Recordings of Compositions 1969 – December 15, 1978David Gregg & James Russell Invent the Laserdisc 1969 – 1971The Datapoint 2200: Precursor of the Personal Computer and the Microprocessor 1969The First Full-Length Audio Recording of a Book 1969 – 1984Derek Austin Develops the PRECIS Preserved Context Index System April 7, 1969Steve Crocker Embodies Peer to Peer Architecture (P2P) as One of the Key Concepts of the ARPANET May 1, 1969Jerry Sanders and Colleagues from Fairchild Semiconductor Found AMD July 21, 1969A Problem with the Apollo 11 Guidance Computer Nearly Prevents the First Moon Walk August 30, 1969Leonard Kleinrock Establishes the First ARPANET Node and the First Network Connection October 29, 1969Charley Kline Sends the First Message Over the ARPANET December 5, 1969The First Four Nodes on the ARPANET Circa 1970Acquiring New Archival Material at the Rate of 1 Mile per Year 1970Xerox PARC is Founded 1970Norman Abramson Builds the First Packet-Switched Wireless Data Network 1970 – 1977Corning Glass Introduces Optical Fibers Enabling the Internet Backbone 1970Negroponte's "The Architecture Machine" is Published 1970DEC and Centronics Introduce the First Dot Matrix Printers 1970Crutzen Proves that Nitrous Oxide Impacts the Stratospheric Ozone Layer 1970 – 1971The Kenback-1, the First Stored-Program "Personal Computer" January 1970 – May 1973IBM Performs the First Test of Magnetic Stripe Transaction Card Technology February 1970Rand Issues the First Systematic Review of Computer Security Issues March 1970ARPANET Spans the U.S. June 1970Edgar Codd Publishes the Definitive Model for Relational Database Management Systems June 30, 1970The IBM System/370 Uses Semiconductor Memory October 5, 1970PBS is Founded November 14, 1970UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property 1970 December 1970Gilbert Hyatt Files the First General Patent on the Microprocessor, Later Invalidated