A: Carbondale, Illinois, United States
From 1974 to 1975 Gary Whisenhunt and Ray Wood at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, wrote the first role-playing video game in the TUTOR programming language for the PLATO system. It was called Dungeons & Dragons (dnd). The name dnd was derived from the abbreviation "D&D" from the original tabletop role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons, which was released in 1974.
The publication of the "table-top" version of D&D is widely regarded as the beginning of modern role-playing games and of the role-playing game industry.
"The original Dungeons & Dragons boxed set was the first role-playing game, a fantasy system with a medieval European flavor. This set introduced concepts which would become standard, including abilities (such as strength, intelligence, and dexterity); character classes (fighting-man, magic-user, cleric) and levels; races (human, dwarf, elf, halfling); armor class; monsters and treasure; subterranean dungeons of halls, rooms, and doors replete with tricks and traps; and magic items, such as intelligent swords. The set also includes rules for wilderness travel by land and sea, hiring specialists and men-at-arms, building fortifications and setting up baronies. Movement rates and areas are given in inches, like that of the miniatures rules from which the system descended.
The set also included brief guidelines on using monsters as player characters." (Wikipedia article on Dungeons & Dragons (1974), accessed 7-2019).