Map of the Western Han dynasty in 2 CE. Darker blue area represents principalities and centrally-administered commanderies. Lighter blue represents protectorate of the Western Regions (Tarim Basin). From Barnes, Mapping History: World History, London, 2007.
In 2 CE, the first census of which records are preserved was taken in China during the Han Dynasty. At that time there were 57.5 million people living in Han China— the world’s largest population.