A: Paris, Île-de-France, France
In 1824 French mathematician and physicist Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier published "Remarques générales sur les températures du globe terrestre et des espaces planétaires," Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 27 (1824) 136–67. In this paper Fourier showed how gases in the atmosphere might increase the surface temperature of the earth. This was later called the greenhouse effect.
Fourier's paper was translated into English by Ebeneser Burgess, and published in the American Journal of Science 32 (1837) 1-20.