In 1892 Vladimir Ivanovich Stepanov, dancer at the Imperial Ballet in Saint Petersburg, published L'Alphabet des mouvements du corps humain. The pamphlet was issued in Paris. Stepanov's system of dance notation
"encodes dance movements with musical notes and not with pictographs or newly invented abstract symbols. Stepanov breaks complex movements down to elementary moves which single parts of the body can make. These basic moves are then enciphered as musical signs" (Wikipedia article on Vladimir Ivanovich Stepanov, accessed 04-05-2009).