A: Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Calvin Mooers Coins the Expression, "Information Retrieval"
In 1950 American computer scientist Calvin Mooers coined the expression information retrieval in "the Zator Technical Bulletin No. 48 (1950), a publication of the Cambridge, Mass.-based Zator Co.- which Mooers founded in 1947. Mooers produced the definition of the phrase: 'The requirements of information retrieval, of finding information whose location or very existence is a priori unknown....' " (http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/commentaries/tsv11(06)p09y19970317.pdf, accessed 01-16-2010). Mooer's Zator Co. was probably the first information retrieval service company.