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A: Niederdorla, Thüringen, Germany

The Earliest References to Playing Cards in Europe

Knave of coins   Italy 2 deck

Knave of Coins from the oldest known European deck (c. 1390–1410).

"The earliest references to playing cards in Europe that can be clearly differentiated from chess, follow each other with rapid succession in various countries—Germany 1377, Spain 1377, Luxemburg 1379, Italy 1379, Belgium 1379, France 1382. . . "(Carter, Invention of Printing in China, 2nd ed. [1955] 185).

At this time playing cards in Europe were probably not printed.

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