Detail map of İstanbul, Turkey,Loutraki, Greece Overview map of İstanbul, Turkey,Loutraki, Greece

A: İstanbul, Turkey, B: Loutraki, Greece

The Earliest Evidence of a Water-Driven Wheel

Circa 250 BCE
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<p style="text-align: left;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Hydraulic wheel of Perachora.&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Georgia,Times;">Photo :&nbsp;<a href="http://www.augustastylianougallery.com/">Augusta Stylianou</a></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Georgia,Times;">&nbsp;Artist.&nbsp;</span>From "Ancient Greek Technology" exhibition at the Evagoras &amp; Kathleen Lanitis Centre in Carob Mill&nbsp;<a href="http://www.hellenicaworld.com/Cyprus/Geo/en/Limassol.html">Limassol.</a>&nbsp;Reconstruction by Prof . Kostas Kotsanas and his students</p>
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Hydraulic wheel of Perachora. Photo : Augusta Stylianou Artist. From "Ancient Greek Technology" exhibition at the Evagoras & Kathleen Lanitis Centre in Carob Mill Limassol. Reconstruction by Prof . Kostas Kotsanas and his students

The Greeks invented the two main components of watermills, the waterwheel and toothed gearing, and were, along with the Romans, the first to operate undershot, overshot and breastshot waterwheel mills.

The earliest evidence of a water-driven wheel is probably the Perachora wheel  excavated from Perachora, an inland settlement in the Loutraki-Perachoras municipality of the Corinthia prefecture in the periphery of Peloponnese in Greece. The earliest written reference to a water-driven wheel is in the technical treatises Pneumatica and Parasceuastica of the Greek engineer Philo of Byzantium (Φίλων ὁ Βυζάντιος).  

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