Page opening with Diagrams from Moreno's Who Shall Survive?
Creative Commons LicenseJeremy Norman Collection of Images - Creative Commons
Beginning of New York Times article on Moreno April 3, 1933
Beginning of New York Times article on Moreno April 3, 1933
Detail map of Washington, District of Columbia, United States,Brooklyn, New York, United States Overview map of Washington, District of Columbia, United States,Brooklyn, New York, United States

A: Washington, District of Columbia, United States, B: Brooklyn, New York, United States

Invention of the Sociogram: Some of the Earliest Graphic Depictions of Social Networks

4/3/1933 to 1934
Moreno Who Shall Survive diagrams
Creative Commons LicenseJeremy Norman Collection of Images - Creative Commons

On April 3, 1933 The New York Times published an article entitled and summarized in sub-headings, as follows: "Emotions Mapped by New Geography: Charts seem to Portray the Psychological Currents of Human Relationships. FIRST STUDIES EXHIBITED. Colored Lines Show Likes and Dislikes of Individuals and of Groups. MANY MISFITS REVEALED. Dr. J.L. Moreno Calculates There Are 10 to 15 Million Isolated Individuals In Nation." The article reported on an interview with Romanian-born Austrian-American psychiatrist, psychosociologist, and group psychotherapy pioneer Jacob L Moreno.

The following year Moreno published a book entitled Who Shall Survive? A New Approach to the Problem of Human Interrelations in Washington, D.C. Apart from its psychiatric and sociological significance, this work contained some of the earliest graphic depictions of social networks— data visualization methods later applied to numerous other disciplines. These images were later called sociograms. For a second edition published in New York in 1953 Moreno revised the title to Who Shall Survive? Foundations of Sociometry, Group Psychotherapy and Sociodrama

Lima, Visual Complexity. Mapping Patterns of Information (2011) 75-76.

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