In 1821 German science writer Johann Carl Leuchs issued Darstellung der neuesten Verbesserungen in der Verfertigung des Papiers, enthaltend insbesondere die Beschreibung und Abbildung der Machine zur Verfertigung des Papiers ohne Ende ... This 90-page book published in Nuremberg was the first book on papermaking by machine in any language. That was especially remarkable because there were only a handful of papermaking machines in Germany at the time. The full title of Leuchs' book may be translated as Presentation of the latest improvements in the manufacture of the paper, including, in particular, the description and illustration of the machine for making the paper without end, for smoothing and cutting the paper, means to make colored paper, and all the substitutes for rags in the production of paper.
Leuchs provided specially detailed information on the Dickinson machines made in England, plus the few available German designs. He illustrated his book with three folding plates of papermaking machinery. His focus on substitutes for rags in the production of paper reflects the general scarcity of high quality rags--scarcity that was aggravated as production of paper was increased by machinery.