A: London, England, United Kingdom
In 1673 English diplomat, mathematician and inventor Samuel Morland published in London The Description and Use of Two Arithmetic Instruments. This was the first monograph on a calculating machine published in English, and after Galileo's Compasso, and Napier's Rabdologiae, the first book a calculator in any language, apart from Pascal's 18-page pamphlet on the Pascaline.
After entering government service in 1653 Morland was chosen to accompany a British diplomatic mission to the court of Sweden's Queen Christina. The Swedish Queen was a noted patron of the sciences, and Blaise Pascal had presented her with one of his Pascaline calculators in 1652. It is likely that Morland had the opportunity to familiarize himself with the Pascaline while in Sweden.
During the 1660s Morland devised three calculating machines—one for trigonometry (1663), one for addition and subtraction (1666) and one for multiplication and division (1662). In his book Morland described two calculating devices, which worked "without charging the memory, disturbing the mind, or exposing the operations to any uncertainty." Morland's device is regarded by some as the first multiplying calculator.