SAGE operator using a light-sensing gun or light pen.

SAGE operator using a light-sensing gun or light pen.

SAGE command center

SAGE command center.

Detail map of Fort Carson, Colorado, United States Overview map of Fort Carson, Colorado, United States

A: Fort Carson, Colorado, United States

The SAGE Air Defense System Built by IBM Includes the First Light Pen

1954 to 1963
<p>The enormous AN/FSQ-7 computer built by IBM was the heart of the SAGE system.</p>

The enormous AN/FSQ-7 computer built by IBM was the heart of the SAGE system.

In 1954 development began for NORAD on the SAGE Air Defense System, using a computer built by IBM after a design based on the Whirlwind. The system included the first light pen.

The full SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) automated control system for tracking and intercepting enemy bomber aircraft was completed by 1963.

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