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A: Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Foundation of the University of Bologna, the Oldest Continuously Operating University


The Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, (UNIBO. University of Bologna) the oldest continuously operating university, was founded in 1088.

"An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom. The first documentary evidence of this comes early in the life of the first university. Bologna university adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of 'academic freedom'.This is now widely recognised internationally, when on 18 September 1988 430 University Rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation" (Wikipedia article on university, accessed 09-25-2010).

Timeline Themes