DEC PDP-7 used for the initial work on UNIX
DEC PDP-7 used for the initial work UNIX
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A: Brooklyn, New York, United States

Kenneth Thompson & Dennis Ritchie Develop UNIX, Making Open Systems Possible

Ken Thompson (sitting) and Dennis Ritchie working together at a PDP-11
Ken Thompson (sitting) and Dennis Ritchie working together at a PDP-11

In 1969 Kenneth Thompson and Dennis Ritchie developed the UNIX operating system at Bell Labs. This was the first operating system designed to run on computers of all sizes, making open systems possible. UNIX became the foundation for the Internet.

"The origins of Unix date back to the mid-1960s when the Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyBell Labs, and General Electric were developing Multics, a time-sharing operating system for the GE-645 mainframe computer.[14] Multics featured several innovations, but also presented severe problems. Frustrated by the size and complexity of Multics, but not by its goals, individual researchers at Bell Labs started withdrawing from the project. The last to leave were Ken ThompsonDennis RitchieDouglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna,[10] who decided to reimplement their experiences in a new project of smaller scale. This new operating system was initially without organizational backing, and also without a name.
"The new operating system was a single-tasking system.[10] In 1970, the group coined the name Unics for Uniplexed Information and Computing Service (pronounced "eunuchs"), as a pun on Multics, which stood for Multiplexed Information and Computer ServicesBrian Kernighan takes credit for the idea, but adds that "no one can remember" the origin of the final spelling Unix.[15] Dennis Ritchie,[10] Doug McIlroy,[1] and Peter G. Neumann[16] also credit Kernighan.
"The operating system was originally written in assembly language, but in 1973, Version 4 Unix was rewritten in C.[10] Version 4 Unix, however, still had many PDP-11 dependent codes, and was not suitable for porting. The first port to another platform was made five years later (1978) for the Interdata 8/32.[17]
"Bell Labs produced several versions of Unix that are collectively referred to as "Research Unix". In 1975, the first source license for UNIX was sold to Donald B. Gillies at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign Department of Computer Science.[18] UIUC graduate student Greg Chesson, who had worked on the UNIX kernel at Bell Labs, was instrumental in negotiating the terms of the license.[19]
"During the late 1970s and early 1980s, the influence of Unix in academic circles led to large-scale adoption of Unix (BSD and System V) by commercial startups, which in turn led to Unix fragmenting into multiple, similar but often slightly mutually-incompatible systems including DYNIXHP-UXSunOS/SolarisAIX, and Xenix. In the late 1980s, AT&T Unix System Laboratories and Sun Microsystems developed System V Release 4 (SVR4), which was subsequently adopted by many commercial Unix vendors.
"In the 1990s, Unix and Unix-like systems grew in popularity and became the operating system of choice for over 90% of the world's top 500 fastest supercomputers,[20] as BSD and Linux distributions were developed through collaboration by a worldwide network of programmers. In 2000, Apple released Darwin, also a Unix system, which became the core of the Mac OS X operating system, later renamed macOS.[21]
"Unix operating systems are widely used in modern serversworkstations, and mobile devices." (Wikipedia article on Unix, accessed 9-2020).

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